- Excessive fluoride exposure is positively related to CALCA methylation in women.
- CALCA methylation in Chinese women is negatively associated with BMD.
- Long-term excessive fluoride exposure is negatively related to BMD in women.
- BMD in women with CALCA hypermethylated is more susceptible to fluoride.
- The statistical associations are age-specific and mainly observed in older women.
Excessive exposure to fluoride has been reported to affect bone mineral density (BMD). CALCA expression plays a critical part in bone formation. However, the role of CALCA in the association between fluoride and BMD is not known. We conducted a cross-sectional study and recruited 722 women in rural areas of Henan Province, China, to assess the relationship between fluoride exposure, CALCA methylation, and BMD. Urinary levels of fluoride, CALCA methylation, and BMD were measured by a fluoride ion-selective electrode, standalone ultrasound bone densitometer, and quantitative methylation-specific polymerases chain reaction, respectively. The association among fluoride exposure, CALCA methylation, and BMD was age-specific. Specifically, BMD was negatively correlated with methylation (B: -0.008; 95% CI: ?0.016, 0.000) and fluoride exposure (B: -0.063; 95% CI: -0.129, -0.002) in women over 45 years and 50–54 years of age, respectively, whereas methylation was positively correlated with fluoride exposure (B: 4.953; 95% CI: 1.162, 8.743) in women aged 40–44 years. Besides, increased BMD in women aged 45–49 years induced by the interactive effect of the highest methylation of CALCA exon 1 (tertile 3) and fluoride exposure was observed (P for interaction <0.05). Our findings suggest an age-specific association between exposure to excessive fluoride, CALCA methylation, and BMD in a rural population of women in China. Notably, the susceptibility of BMD to fluoride exposure may be modified by CALCA methylation.
BMD -Bone mineral density
BMI -Body mass index
PSQI -Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index
UF -Urinary fluoride
UC -Urinary creatinine
UFC -Creatinine-adjusted urinary fluoride
ALP -Alkaline phosphatase
PCR -Polymerase chain reaction
HDL-C -High-density lipoprotein-cholesterol
Fluoride in Drinking Water, Diet, and Urine in Relation to Bone Mineral Density and Fracture Incidence in Postmenopausal Women.
Background: Although randomized controlled trials (RCTs) have demonstrated that high fluoride increases bone mineral density (BMD) and skeletal fragility, observational studies of low-dose chronic exposure through drinking water (<1.5mg/L, the maximum recommended by the World Health Organization) have been inconclusive. Objective: We assessed associations of fluoride in urine, and intake via
Evaluation of vascular and kidney injury biomarkers in Mexican children exposed to inorganic fluoride.
Highlights The relationship of child F exposure with vascular and kidney injury was assessed. The F exposure in children was partially explained by water F levels. Overall, the results were unable to elucidate kidney damage by F exposure. Childhood F exposure was associated with atherosclerotic biomarkers. Decreased serum and urine
OP V – 2 Prenatal fluoride exposure and neurobehavior among children 1–3 years of age in Mexico
Background/aim Recent studies report an inverse association between fluoride (F) exposure and IQ in children, but few included individual measures of exposure or assessed associations with prenatal exposure using a prospective study design. Methods This study utilised the Early Life Exposures in Mexico to Environmental Toxicants (ELEMENT) birth cohort and archived pregnancy samples
Dental fluorosis and a polymorphism in the COL1A2 gene in Mexican children.
Highlights Dental fluorosis is a public health problem in the communities evaluated. The rs 412777 polymorphism in the COL1A2 gene was found in Mexican children. An association between the COL1A2 gene polymorphism and dental fluorosis was found. The genetic variant evaluated represents a risk factor to develop dental fluorosis. OBJECTIVE:
Prenatal Fluoride Exposure and Cognitive Outcomes in Children at 4 and 6–12 Years of Age in Mexico
Background: Some evidence suggests that fluoride may be neurotoxic to children. Few of the epidemiologic studies have been longitudinal, had individual measures of fluoride exposure, addressed the impact of prenatal exposures or involved more than 100 participants. OBJECTIVE: Our aim was to estimate the association of prenatal exposure to fluoride with
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Annapolis: Water Fluoridation Linked to Death of Dialysis Patient
EVENING CAPITAL (Annapolis, Maryland) November 29, 1979 Fluoride Linked to Death by Mary Ann Kryzankowicz Staff Writer Fluoride poisoning has been definitely linked to the death of a 65-year-old kidney dialysis patient who became ill during a blood cleaning process Nov 11. State Medical Examiner Dr. (illegible) Guard has ruled that Lawrence Blake, 65, of Arundel
Fluoridation of drinking water and chronic kidney disease: Absence of evidence is not evidence of absence
A fairly substantial body of research indicates that patients with chronic renal insufficiency are at an increased risk of chronic fluoride toxicity. Patients with reduced glomerular filtration rates have a decreased ability to excrete fluoride in the urine. These patients may develop skeletal fluorosis even at 1 ppm fluoride in the drinking water.
Skeletal Fluorosis & Individual Variability
One of the common fallacies in the research on skeletal fluorosis is the notion that there is a uniform level of fluoride that is safe for everyone in the population. These "safety thresholds" have been expressed in terms of (a) bone fluoride content, (b) daily dose, (c) water fluoride level, (d) urinary fluoride level, and (e) blood fluoride level. The central fallacy with each of these alleged safety thresholds, however, is that they ignore the wide range of individual susceptibility in how people respond to toxic substances, including fluoride.
Fluoridated Water Causes Severe Dental Fluorosis in Children with Diabetes Insipidus
This section on Diabetes includes: • Fluoride & Impaired Glucose Tolerance • Fluoride & Insulin • Fluoride Sensitivity Among Diabetics • Fluoridated Water Causes Severe Dental Fluorosis in Children with Diabetes Insipidus • NRC (2006): Fluoride’s Effect on Glucose Metabolism Excessive exposure to fluoride causes a defect of the tooth enamel known as dental fluorosis. In
Mayo Clinic: Fluoridation & Bone Disease in Renal Patients
The available evidence suggests that some patients wtih long-term renal failure are being affected by drinking water with as little as 2 ppm fluoride. The finding of adverse effects in patients drinking water with 2 ppm of fluoride suggests that a few similar cases may be found in patients imbibing 1 ppm, especially if large volumes are consumed, or in heavy tea drinkers. The finding of adverse effects in patients drinking water with 2 ppm of fluoride suggests that a few similar cases may be found in patients imbibing 1 ppm, especially if large volumes are consumed, or in heavy tea drinkers and if fluoride is indeed the cause. It would seem prudent, therefore, to monitor the fluoride intake of patients with renal failure living in high fluoride areas.
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