- Excessive fluoride exposure is positively related to CALCA methylation in women.
- CALCA methylation in Chinese women is negatively associated with BMD.
- Long-term excessive fluoride exposure is negatively related to BMD in women.
- BMD in women with CALCA hypermethylated is more susceptible to fluoride.
- The statistical associations are age-specific and mainly observed in older women.
Excessive exposure to fluoride has been reported to affect bone mineral density (BMD). CALCA expression plays a critical part in bone formation. However, the role of CALCA in the association between fluoride and BMD is not known. We conducted a cross-sectional study and recruited 722 women in rural areas of Henan Province, China, to assess the relationship between fluoride exposure, CALCA methylation, and BMD. Urinary levels of fluoride, CALCA methylation, and BMD were measured by a fluoride ion-selective electrode, standalone ultrasound bone densitometer, and quantitative methylation-specific polymerases chain reaction, respectively. The association among fluoride exposure, CALCA methylation, and BMD was age-specific. Specifically, BMD was negatively correlated with methylation (B: -0.008; 95% CI: ?0.016, 0.000) and fluoride exposure (B: -0.063; 95% CI: -0.129, -0.002) in women over 45 years and 50–54 years of age, respectively, whereas methylation was positively correlated with fluoride exposure (B: 4.953; 95% CI: 1.162, 8.743) in women aged 40–44 years. Besides, increased BMD in women aged 45–49 years induced by the interactive effect of the highest methylation of CALCA exon 1 (tertile 3) and fluoride exposure was observed (P for interaction <0.05). Our findings suggest an age-specific association between exposure to excessive fluoride, CALCA methylation, and BMD in a rural population of women in China. Notably, the susceptibility of BMD to fluoride exposure may be modified by CALCA methylation.
BMD -Bone mineral density
BMI -Body mass index
PSQI -Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index
UF -Urinary fluoride
UC -Urinary creatinine
UFC -Creatinine-adjusted urinary fluoride
ALP -Alkaline phosphatase
PCR -Polymerase chain reaction
HDL-C -High-density lipoprotein-cholesterol
Fluoride in Drinking Water, Diet, and Urine in Relation to Bone Mineral Density and Fracture Incidence in Postmenopausal Women.
Background: Although randomized controlled trials (RCTs) have demonstrated that high fluoride increases bone mineral density (BMD) and skeletal fragility, observational studies of low-dose chronic exposure through drinking water (<1.5mg/L, the maximum recommended by the World Health Organization) have been inconclusive. Objective: We assessed associations of fluoride in urine, and intake via
Denser but Not Stronger? Fluoride-Induced Bone Growth and Increased Risk of Hip Fractures.
Abstract Since the mid-1940s, fluoride has been added to toothpaste and (in some countries) tap water, table salt, or milk to reduce dental cavities.1 Although low-level fluoride supplementation prevents cavities, higher levels cause white mottling of the teeth.2 What is more, some studies suggest fluoride in drinking water may increase the
Association of Dietary Calcium Intake with Dental, Skeletal and Non-Skeletal Fluorosis among Women in the Ethiopian Rift Valley.
Fluorosis is a major public health problem in the Rift Valley of Ethiopia. Low calcium (Ca) intake may worsen fluorosis symptoms. We assessed the occurrence of fluorosis symptoms among women living in high-fluoride (F) communities in South Ethiopia and their associations with dietary Ca intake. Women (n = 270) from
Environmental Fluoride 1977 by Rose & Marier
The Associate Committee on Scientific Criteria for Environmental Quality was established by the National Research Council of Canada in response to a mandate provided by the Federal Government to develop scientific guidelines for defining the quality of the environment. The concern of the NRC Associate Committee is strictly with scientific
Association Between Osteoarthritis and Water Fluoride Among Tongyu Residents, China, 2019: a Case–Control of Population-Based Study
Fluoride is an environmental chemical that has adverse effects on articular cartilage, probably increasing osteoarthritis (OA) risk. However, this association still needs more epidemiological evidence to clarify. The aim of this study was to determine the relationships between chronic fluoride exposure and OA risk among the residents living in Tongyu
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Mayo Clinic: Fluoridation & Bone Disease in Renal Patients
The available evidence suggests that some patients wtih long-term renal failure are being affected by drinking water with as little as 2 ppm fluoride. The finding of adverse effects in patients drinking water with 2 ppm of fluoride suggests that a few similar cases may be found in patients imbibing 1 ppm, especially if large volumes are consumed, or in heavy tea drinkers. The finding of adverse effects in patients drinking water with 2 ppm of fluoride suggests that a few similar cases may be found in patients imbibing 1 ppm, especially if large volumes are consumed, or in heavy tea drinkers and if fluoride is indeed the cause. It would seem prudent, therefore, to monitor the fluoride intake of patients with renal failure living in high fluoride areas.
Kidney Patients Are at Increased Risk of Fluoride Poisoning
It is well established that individuals with kidney disease are susceptible to suffering bone damage and other ill effects from low levels of fluoride exposure. Kidney patients are at elevated risk because when kidneys are damaged they are unable to efficiently excrete fluoride from the body. As a result, kidney patients
Factors which increase the risk for skeletal fluorosis
The risk for developing skeletal fluorosis, and the course the disease will take, is not solely dependent on the dose of fluoride ingested. Indeed, people exposed to similar doses of fluoride may experience markedly different effects. While the wide range in individual response to fluoride is not yet fully understood, the following are some of the factors that are believed to play a role.
Fluoridation, Dialysis & Osteomalacia
In the 1960s and 1970s, doctors discovered that patients receiving kidney dialysis were accumulating very high levels of fluoride in their bones and blood, and that this exposure was associated with severe forms of osteomalacia, a bone-softening disease that leads to weak bones and often excruciating bone pain. Based on
As demonstrated by the studies below, skeletal fluorosis may produce adverse symptoms, including arthritic pains, clinical osteoarthritis, gastrointestinal disturbances, and bone fragility, before the classic bone change of fluorosis (i.e., osteosclerosis in the spine and pelvis) is detectable by x-ray. Relying on x-rays, therefore, to diagnosis skeletal fluorosis will invariably fail to protect those individuals who are suffering from the pre-skeletal phase of the disease. Moreover, some individuals with clinical skeletal fluorosis will not develop an increase in bone density, let alone osteosclerosis, of the spine. Thus, relying on unusual increases in spinal bone density will under-detect the rate of skeletal fluoride poisoning in a population.
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