- Excessive fluoride exposure is positively related to CALCA methylation in women.
- CALCA methylation in Chinese women is negatively associated with BMD.
- Long-term excessive fluoride exposure is negatively related to BMD in women.
- BMD in women with CALCA hypermethylated is more susceptible to fluoride.
- The statistical associations are age-specific and mainly observed in older women.
Excessive exposure to fluoride has been reported to affect bone mineral density (BMD). CALCA expression plays a critical part in bone formation. However, the role of CALCA in the association between fluoride and BMD is not known. We conducted a cross-sectional study and recruited 722 women in rural areas of Henan Province, China, to assess the relationship between fluoride exposure, CALCA methylation, and BMD. Urinary levels of fluoride, CALCA methylation, and BMD were measured by a fluoride ion-selective electrode, standalone ultrasound bone densitometer, and quantitative methylation-specific polymerases chain reaction, respectively. The association among fluoride exposure, CALCA methylation, and BMD was age-specific. Specifically, BMD was negatively correlated with methylation (B: -0.008; 95% CI: ?0.016, 0.000) and fluoride exposure (B: -0.063; 95% CI: -0.129, -0.002) in women over 45 years and 50–54 years of age, respectively, whereas methylation was positively correlated with fluoride exposure (B: 4.953; 95% CI: 1.162, 8.743) in women aged 40–44 years. Besides, increased BMD in women aged 45–49 years induced by the interactive effect of the highest methylation of CALCA exon 1 (tertile 3) and fluoride exposure was observed (P for interaction <0.05). Our findings suggest an age-specific association between exposure to excessive fluoride, CALCA methylation, and BMD in a rural population of women in China. Notably, the susceptibility of BMD to fluoride exposure may be modified by CALCA methylation.
BMD -Bone mineral density
BMI -Body mass index
PSQI -Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index
UF -Urinary fluoride
UC -Urinary creatinine
UFC -Creatinine-adjusted urinary fluoride
ALP -Alkaline phosphatase
PCR -Polymerase chain reaction
HDL-C -High-density lipoprotein-cholesterol
Dental fluorosis and a polymorphism in the COL1A2 gene in Mexican children.
Highlights Dental fluorosis is a public health problem in the communities evaluated. The rs 412777 polymorphism in the COL1A2 gene was found in Mexican children. An association between the COL1A2 gene polymorphism and dental fluorosis was found. The genetic variant evaluated represents a risk factor to develop dental fluorosis. OBJECTIVE:
Evaluation of vascular and kidney injury biomarkers in Mexican children exposed to inorganic fluoride.
Highlights The relationship of child F exposure with vascular and kidney injury was assessed. The F exposure in children was partially explained by water F levels. Overall, the results were unable to elucidate kidney damage by F exposure. Childhood F exposure was associated with atherosclerotic biomarkers. Decreased serum and urine
WITHDRAWN: Co-exposure effects of arsenic and fluoride on intelligence and oxidative stress in school-aged children: a cohort study.
This article has been withdrawn at the request of the editor. The Publisher apologizes for any inconvenience this may cause. as of November 6, 2020 Highlights Pioneer biomonitoring study on rural children to address As and F- co-exposure. High dental Fluorosis found in relation to urinary As and F- levels in
Fluoride Exposure and Neurodevelopmental Outcomes Among Children in the United States: A pilot study.
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Evaluation of a fluorosis prevention educational program: A randomized field trial.
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Kidney Patients Are at Increased Risk of Fluoride Poisoning
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Factors which increase the risk for skeletal fluorosis
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Dental Fluorosis & Enamel Hypoplasia in Children with Kidney Disease
Children with kidney disease are known to have high levels of fluoride in their blood and to be at risk for disfiguring tooth defects. Research suggests that high levels of fluoride in blood, which can cause the tooth defect known as dental fluorosis, can contribute to the defects that occur
As demonstrated by the studies below, skeletal fluorosis may produce adverse symptoms, including arthritic pains, clinical osteoarthritis, gastrointestinal disturbances, and bone fragility, before the classic bone change of fluorosis (i.e., osteosclerosis in the spine and pelvis) is detectable by x-ray. Relying on x-rays, therefore, to diagnosis skeletal fluorosis will invariably fail to protect those individuals who are suffering from the pre-skeletal phase of the disease. Moreover, some individuals with clinical skeletal fluorosis will not develop an increase in bone density, let alone osteosclerosis, of the spine. Thus, relying on unusual increases in spinal bone density will under-detect the rate of skeletal fluoride poisoning in a population.
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