- Acidosis due to chronic high altitude residence could enhance dental fluorosis.
- High fluoride retention occurs due to impaired kidney function at higher altitude.
- Need to maintain good nutrition status and intake of alkaline producing diets.
- Optimum iodine and vitamin D intake helps to control dental fluorosis.
- Need to keep the drinking water fluoride level 0.1 mg/L at 1500 m altitude.
Many scientific reports emphasized that the extent of prevalence and severity of dental fluorosis is higher among the people residing at high altitude regions than lower altitudes, even though they are exposed to drinking water with similar or less fluoride levels. This review reports various factors which enhance the risk of prevalence and severity of dental fluorosis at high altitude regions through different pathways. Especially, this review focused on ecological, physiological, biochemical and dietary factors as well as to identify potential key areas to implement further research on control of dental fluorosis risk at high altitude regions. In addition, by considering the pathways of risks, suitable remedial measures are also recommended in this review to manage the dental fluorosis risk at higher altitude regions.
*Original abstract online at https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/abs/pii/S2352186420314152
Association of dental and skeletal fluorosis with calcium intake and vitamin D concentrations in adolescents from a region endemic for fluorosis
Objective: Patan, is a semi urban area in Gujarat, India where fluorosis is endemic (Fluoride concentration in ground water 1.96–10.85 ppm, Patel et al., 2008). Exposure to fluoride is likely to be higher in lower socio-economic class (SEC) due to lack of access to bottled water. Calcium intake and vitamin
Epidemiological, clinical, and biochemical study of endemic dental and skeletal fluorosis in Punjab
The incidence of dental fluorosis in 46,000 children in the Punjab was assessed and compared with the fluoride content of their water supplies. Ten villages were selected for more detailed studies of skeletal as well as dental fluorosis. Factors other than the fluoride content of the drinking water which were found to influence
Nutritional status and dental fluorosis among schoolchildren in communities with different drinking water fluoride concentrations in a central region in Mexico
Poor water quality and under nutrition are important factors affecting the health of many communities in developing countries. The aims of this study were: i) to describe the fluoride water concentration and the hydrogeological conditions in a region of a state located in the central in Mexico ii) to measure
Systematic review of water fluoridation.
Objective: To review the safety and efficacy of fluoridation of drinking water. Design: Search of 25 electronic databases and world wide web. Relevant journals hand searched; further information requested from authors. Inclusion criteria were a predefined hierarchy of evidence and objectives. Study validity was assessed with checklists. Two reviewers independently screened
Groundwater quality and its health impact: An assessment of dental fluorosis in rural inhabitants of the Main Ethiopian Rift.
Highlights We mapped groundwater fluoride distribution and identified fluoride health risk areas. Dental fluorosis (DF) was evaluated based on TFI scale (Thylstrup and Fejerskov index). Relationship between groundwater fluoride and its dental health impact was established. Effect of milk consumption on DF was evaluated and contributed to reducing DF severity.
Related Studies :
Racial Disparities in Dental Fluorosis
In 2005, the Centers for Disease Control published the results of a national survey of dental fluorosis conducted between 1999 and 2002. According to the CDC, black children in the United States have significantly higher rates of dental fluorosis than either white or Hispanic children. This was not the first time that black children were found to suffer higher rates of dental fluorosis. At least five other studies -- dating as far back as the 1960s -- have found black children in the United States are disproportionately impacted by dental fluorosis.
Nutrient Deficiencies Enhance Fluoride Toxicity
It has been known since the 1930s that poor nutrition enhances the toxicity of fluoride. As discussed below, nutrient deficiencies have been specifically linked to increased susceptibility to fluoride-induced tooth damage (dental fluorosis), bone damage (osteomalacia), neurotoxicity (reduced intelligence), and mutagenicity. The nutrients of primary importance appear to be calcium,
Fluoride, Water Hardness, and Endemic Goitre
Variations in goitre prevalence were found to correlate closely with the fluoride content (p=0-74; P<0-01) and with the hardness (p=0.77; P<0-01) of the water in each village. The effects of fluoride and water hardness seem to be independent.
Fluoride & Rickets
One of fluoride's most well-defined effects on bone tissue is it's ability to increase the osteoid (unmineralized bone) content of bone. When bones have too much osteoid, they become soft and prone to fracture -- a condition known as osteomalacia. When osteomalacia develops during childhood, it is called "rickets." The potential for fluoride
Dental Fluorosis Impacts Dentin in Addition to Enamel
Dental fluorosis is a mineralization defect of tooth enamel marked by increased subsurface porosity. The enamel, however, is not the only component of teeth that is effected. As several studies have demonstrated, dental fluorosis can also impair the mineralization of dentin as well. As noted in one review: "The fact that
Related FAN Content :