- Acidosis due to chronic high altitude residence could enhance dental fluorosis.
- High fluoride retention occurs due to impaired kidney function at higher altitude.
- Need to maintain good nutrition status and intake of alkaline producing diets.
- Optimum iodine and vitamin D intake helps to control dental fluorosis.
- Need to keep the drinking water fluoride level 0.1 mg/L at 1500 m altitude.
Many scientific reports emphasized that the extent of prevalence and severity of dental fluorosis is higher among the people residing at high altitude regions than lower altitudes, even though they are exposed to drinking water with similar or less fluoride levels. This review reports various factors which enhance the risk of prevalence and severity of dental fluorosis at high altitude regions through different pathways. Especially, this review focused on ecological, physiological, biochemical and dietary factors as well as to identify potential key areas to implement further research on control of dental fluorosis risk at high altitude regions. In addition, by considering the pathways of risks, suitable remedial measures are also recommended in this review to manage the dental fluorosis risk at higher altitude regions.
*Original abstract online at https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/abs/pii/S2352186420314152
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Objective: Patan, is a semi urban area in Gujarat, India where fluorosis is endemic (Fluoride concentration in ground water 1.96–10.85 ppm, Patel et al., 2008). Exposure to fluoride is likely to be higher in lower socio-economic class (SEC) due to lack of access to bottled water. Calcium intake and vitamin
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Summary The prevalence and severity of endemic dental fluorosis were studied in 928 undernourished inhabitants who had resided since birth in two fluoride endemic areas in Italy (Compagnano di Roma and Quarto). The data were compared with the index of mottling in endemic areas in the United States with similar fluorine
Environmental and physiological factors affecting dental fluorosis
In addition to differences in fluoride intake and possibly to calcium deficiency or malnutrition, there are several factors which may account for individual differences in the occurrence of dental fluorosis. Disorders in acid-base balance affect the renal handling of fluoride such that, in acidosis, the excretion rate is diminished and,
Effects of smoking, use of aluminum utensils, and tamarind consumption on fluorosis in a fluorotic village of Andhra Pradesh, India
A field study was undertaken to determine effects of tamarind, the use of aluminium (Al) cooking utensils, and smoking on dental and skeletal fluorosis in the randomly selected fluoride (F) endemic village of Buttlapally in the Nalgonda District, Andhra Pradesh, India, where the F level in the drinking water is
[Effect caused by uptake of different levels of calcium to enamel fluorosis in rats].
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