Fluoride Action Network


This article has been withdrawn at the request of the editor. The Publisher apologizes for any inconvenience this may cause.

as of November 6, 2020


  • Pioneer biomonitoring study on rural children to address As and F co-exposure.
  • High dental Fluorosis found in relation to urinary As and F levels in children.
  • Oxidative stress was found associated with lowered intelligence quotient levels.
  • No significant difference was observed in the case of genetic polymorphism.

Arsenic (As), and fluoride (F) are potent contaminants, widely disturbed through drinking water and responsible for various health implications in the exposed population. We aimed to investigate the effects of these two contaminants on dental fluorosis and intelligence quotient (IQ) with the induction of oxidative stress in rural children under the co-exposed scenario. A total of 148 children (5 to 16 years old) from the exposed and control group were incorporated in the study, and samples of biological matrices were collected. Dental fluorosis through Dean’s index and IQ with the help of the Wechsler scale of intelligence (WISC-IV) patterned test were measured. We also monitored malondialdehyde (MDA) and its probable association with antioxidants activity (SOD, CAT, and GR) as a biomarker for oxidative stress. GSTM1/T1 polymorphism was estimated to find their role in the urinary As metabolism. Mean urinary concentration of As (2.70 vs. 0.016 ug/L, P<0.000) and F (3.27 vs. 0.24 mg/L, P<0.000) were quite higher in the exposed group as well as the frequency of dental fluorosis. The rate of children with lowered IQ cases was less in control than the exposed group. Additionally, lower concentrations of antioxidants (SOD, CAT, and GR) were found suggesting high susceptibility to fluoride toxicity. The percentage for null genotype carriers for GSTT1 was higher in exposure than the control group. The findings indicated that F was accounted for high variations associated with dental fluorosis, lower intelligence quotient, and higher oxidative stress in children under the co-exposure scenario.

*Original abstract online at https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/abs/pii/S0013935120310653?via%3Dihub