Fluoride Action Network


The aim of study was to assess prevalence, severity, and associated risk-factors for Dental Fluorosis in Pre-School children (1-6 years) in Fluoride deficient regions (1) Tbilisi (F=0.08-0.22 mg/l) and (2) Akhaltsikhe, (F<0.4 mg/l) Georgia, having different geographic location and socio-economic conditions. A cross-sectional study was carried out on 570 pre-school aged children (1-6 years) attending public kindergartens of Tbilisi and Akhaltsikhe region. Descriptive analysis was performed for Dental Fluorosis prevalence and severity using Thylstrup-Fejerskov Index (TFI). Correlative analysis was done to assess information about possible acquired risk-factors through questionnaire including biological and social variables. To differentiate genuine Dental fluorosis from other non-carious resembling defects ECEL method was introduced. For Fluoride concentration determination in potable water (2) ISO 10359-1:1992 Electrochemical probe as ion-selective electrode method was used. Information about F concentration in Tbilisi tap water (1) was obtained by GWP. (Georgian Water and Power, 2019). The overall Prevalence of Dental Fluorosis in study group was 6.3% (36 Children) (95% CI;(4.3 – 8.3)). There was no statistically significant difference in the level of Dental Fluorosis prevalence between rural and urban residents (P>0.05). Dental Fluorosis prevalence was similar in both gender groups. 6.0% of girls had dental fluorosis (95% CI 2.2% – 8.8%), whereas DF prevalence in boys was 6.5% (95% CI3.7% – 9.3%), respectively. Regular brushing and dentifrices ingestion were not effecting DF prevalence and severity (p>0.05). Indoor coal-burning environment increasing airborne Fluoride absorption during pregnancy was recognized as a risk-factor for dental fluorosis occurrence in children (OR=5.8 (95% CI; 2.1-15.9)). High tea consumption (?2 cups/day) was increasing Odds of DF occurrence (OR=17.3 (95% CI; 7.4-40.7)). Exposure to diverse fluoride sources like indoor coal-burning and high tea consumption in non-fluoridated areas is a risk-factor of Dental Fluorosis in study community.

*Original abstract online at https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/33130647/