1. Ravier EF. Technology of alumina reduction. In: Hughes JP, ed. Health Protection in Primary Aluminium Production, Proceedings of a Seminar, Copenhagen 28–30 June 1977. London, UK: International Primary Aluminum Institute; 1977:17–21.
2. IARC. IARC Monographs on the Evaluation of Carcinogenic Risk of Chemicals to Humans. Polynuclear Aromatic Compounds. Part 3, Industrial Exposures in Aluminium Production, Coal Gasification, Coke Production and Iron and Steel Founding. Vol. 34. Lyon, France: IARC; 1984.
3. Rönneberg A, Langmark F. Epidemiologic evidence of cancer in aluminum reduction workers. Am J Ind Med. 1992;22:573–590.
4. Lavoué J, Gérin M, Côté J, Lapointe R. Mortality and cancer experience of Quebec Aluminum Reduction Plant Workers. Part 1. The reduction plants and coal tar pitch volatile (CTPV) exposure assessment. J Occup Environ Med. 2007;49:997–1008.
5. Benke G, Abramson M, Sim M. Exposures in the alumina and primary aluminium industry: an historical review. Ann Occup Hyg. 1998;42:173–189.
6. Farant J-P, Gariépy M. Relationship between benzo[a]pyrene and individual polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in a Söderberg primary aluminum smelter. Am Ind Hyg Assoc J. 1998;59:758–765.
7. Bjørseth A, Bjorseth O, Fjeldstad PE. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in the work atmosphere. I. Determination in an aluminum reduction plant. Scand J Work Environ Health. 1978;4:212–223.
8. Lindstedt G, Sollenberg J. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in the occupational environment: with special reference to benzo[a]pyrene measurements in Swedish industry. Scand J Work Environ Health. 1982;8:1–19.
9. Tjoe Ny E, Heederik D, Kromhout H, Jongeneelen F. The relationship between polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in air and in urine of workers in a Söderberg potroom. Am Ind Hyg Assoc J. 1993;54:277–284.
10. Petry T, Schmid P, Schlatter C. Airborne exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and urinary excretion of 1-hydroxypyrene of carbon anode plant workers. Ann Occup Hyg. 1996;40:345–357.
11. Carstensen U, Yang K, Levin J-O, et al. Genotoxic exposures of potroom workers. Scand J Work Environ Health. 1999;25(1):24–32.
12. Sanderson EG, Kelly PJ, Farant J-P. Effect of Söderberg smelting technology, anode paste composition, and work shift on the relationship between benzo[a]pyrene and individual polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. J Occup Environ Hyg. 2005;2(2):65–72.
13. Kreyberg L. 3:4-Benzpyrene in industrial air pollution. Some reflections. Br J Cancer. 1959;13:618–622.
14. Gibbs GW. Occupational cancer overview: aluminium reduction. In: Priest ND, O’Donnell TVO, eds. Health in the Aluminium Industry. London, UK: Middlesex University Press; 1998:135–153.
15. Standring P. Cancer Epidemiology in Coal Tar Pitch Volatile-Associated Industries. HSE Toxicity Review Series No 28. Sheffield, UK: Health and Safety Executive; 1993:1–12.
16. Bosetti C, Boffetta P, La Vecchia C. Occupational exposures to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, and respiratory and urinary tract cancers: a quantitative review to 2005. Ann Oncol. 2007;18:431–446.
17. Gibbs GW. Estimating residential polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) related lung cancer risks using occupational data. Ann Occup Hyg. 1997;41(suppl 1):49–53.
18. Armstrong B, Hutchinson E, Unwin J, Fletcher T. Cancer Risk Following Exposure to Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs): A Meta-analysis. Research Report No. 068. Sudbury, UK: Health and Safety Executive; 2002. Available at: http://www.hse.gov.uk/research/rrhtm/rr068.htm
19. Armstrong B, Hutchinson E, Unwin J, Fletcher T. Lung cancer risk after exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons: a review and meta-analysis. Environ Health Perspect. 2004;112:970–978.
20. Armstrong BG, Gibbs G. Exposure-response relationship between lung cancer and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Occup Environ Med. 2009;66:740–746.
21. Friesen MC, Demers PA, Spinelli JJ, Lorenzi MF, Le ND. Comparison of two indices of exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in a retrospective aluminium smelter cohort. Occup Environ Med. 2007;64:273–278.
22. Doko Jelini? J, Nola IA, Udovici? R, Ostoji? D, Zuskin E. Exposure to chemical agents in aluminium potrooms. Med Lav. 2007;98:407–414.
23. Höflich BLW, Weinbruch S, Theissmann R, et al. Characterization of individual aerosol particles in workroom air of aluminium smelter potrooms. J Environ Monit. 2005;7:419–424.
24. Skaugset NP, Ellingsen DG, Dahl K, et al. Occupational exposure to beryllium in primary aluminium production. J Environ Monit. 2012;14:353–359.
25. Taiwo OA, Slade MD, Cantley LF, et al. Beryllium sensitization in aluminum smelter workers. J Occup Environ Med. 2008;50:157–162.
26. Moss CE, Booher D. NIOSH Health Hazard Evaluation Report HETA 91-0337-2466 Aluminum Company of America Badin, North Carolina. Atlanta, GA: NIOSH; 1994. Available at http://www.cdc.gov/niosh/hhe/reports/pdfs/1991-0337-2466.pdf
. Published 1994. Accessed June 14, 2012.
27. Michaud DS, Spiegelman D, Clinton SK, et al. Fluid intake and the risk of bladder cancer in men. New Engl J Med. 1999;340:1390–1397.
28. Manz F, Wentz A. The importance of good hydration in the prevention of chronic diseases. Nutr Rev. 2005;63:S2–S5.
29. Sim M, Benke G. World at work: hazards and controls in aluminium potrooms. Occup Environ Med. 2003;60:989–992.
30. Simonato L. Carcinogenic risk in the aluminium production industry: an epidemiological overview. Med Lav. 1981;72:266–276.
31. IARC. IARC Monographs on the Evaluation of Carcinogenic Risks to Humans. Overall Evaluations of Carcinogenicity: An Updating of IARC Monographs Volumes 1 to 42. Supplement 7. Lyon, France: IARC; 1987.
32. IARC. IARC Monographs on the Evaluation of Carcinogenic Risks to Humans. Some Non-heterocyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and some related exposures. Vol. 92. Lyon, France; 2010.
33. Pearson RJ, Battigelli MC, Gamble JT. Mortality from working in the aluminum reduction industry. Environ Res. 1993;61:19–24.
34. Boffetta P, Jourenkova N, Gustavsson P. Cancer risk from occupational and environmental exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. Cancer Causes Ccontrol. 1997;8:444–472.
35. Rockette HE, Arena VC. Mortality studies of aluminum reduction plant workers: potroom and carbon department. J Occup Med. 1983;25:549–557.
36. Romundstad P, Haldorsen T, Andersen A. Cancer incidence and case specific mortality among workers in two Norwegian aluminum reduction plants. Am J Ind Med. 2000;37:175–183.
37. Sim MR, Del Monaco A, Hoving JL, et al. Mortality and cancer incidence in workers in two Australian prebake aluminium smelters. Occup Environ Med. 2009;66:464–470.
38. Friesen MC, Benke G, Del Monaco A, et al. Relationship between cardiopulmonary mortality and cancer risk and quantitative exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, fluorides, and dust in two prebake aluminum smelters. Cancer Causes Control. 2009;20:905–916.
39. Spinelli J, Band PR, Svirchev LM, Gallagher RP. Mortality and cancer incidence in aluminum reduction workers. J Occup Med. 1991;33:1150–1155.
40. Spinelli JJ, Demers PA, Le ND, et al. Cancer risk in aluminum reduction plant workers (Canada). Cancer Causes Control. 2006;17:929–948.
41. Gibbs GW, Horowitz I. Lung cancer mortality in aluminum reduction plant workers. J Occup Med. 1979;21:347–353.
42. Gibbs GW. Mortality of aluminum reduction plant workers, 1950 through 1977. J Occup Med. 1985;27:761–770.
43. Gibbs GW, Armstrong B, Sévigny M. Mortality and cancer experience of Quebec aluminum reduction plant workers. Part 2: mortality of three cohorts hired on or before January 1, 1951. J Occup Environ Med. 2007;49:1105–1123.
44. Gibbs GW, Sévigny M. Mortality and cancer experience of Quebec aluminum reduction plant workers, part 4: cancer incidence. J Occup Environ Med. 2007;49:1351–1366.
45. Liu N, Wang Z, Dong D, et al. Cancer mortality among carbon workers in China: retrospective cohort study. J Occup Health. 1997;39:325–330.
46. Mur JM, Moulin JJ, Meyer-Bisch C, et al. Mortality of aluminium reduction plant workers in France. Int J Epidemiol. 1987;16:257–264.
47. Moulin JJ, Clavel T, Buclez B, Laffitte-Rigaud G. A mortality study among workers in a French aluminium reduction plant. Int Arch Occup Environ Health. 2000;73:323–330.
48. Giovanazzi A, D’Andrea F. Cause di morte fra i lavatori di un impianto di riduzione elettrolitica di alumina. Med Lav. 1981;4:277–282.
49. Carta P, Cocco PL, Flore C, et al. Mortalità nei lavoratori della fonderia di alluminio primario di Portovesme in Sardegna. Med Lav. 1992;83:530–535.
50. Carta P, Aru G, Cadeddu C, et al. Mortality for pancreatic cancer among aluminium smelter workers in Sardinia, Italy. G Ital Med Lav Erg. 2004;26:83–89.
51. Andersen A, Dahlber BE, Magnus K, et al. Risk of cancer in Norwegian aluminium industry. Int J Cancer. 1982;29:295–298.
52. Rönneberg A, Andersen A. Mortality and cancer morbidity in workers from an aluminium smelter with prebaked carbon anodes—Part II: cancer morbidity. Occup Environ Med. 1995;52:250–254.
53. Rönneberg A, Haldorsen T, Romundstad P, Andersen A. Occupational exposure and cancer incidence among workers from an aluminum smelter in western Norway. Scand J Work Environ Health. 1999;25:207–214.
54. Romundstad P, Andersen A, Haldorsen T. Cancer incidence among workers in six Norwegian aluminum plants. Scand J Work Environ Health. 2000;26:461–469.
55. Romundstad P, Haldorsen T, Andersen A. Lung and bladder cancer among workers in a Norwegian aluminium reduction plant. Occup Environ Med. 2000;57:495–499.
56. Konstantinov VG, Kuzminykh A. Tarry substances and 3:4 benzpyrene in the air of electrolytic shops of aluminum works and their carcinogenic significance. Hyg Sanit. 1971;36:368–371.
57. Konstantinov VG, Simakhina PG, Gotlib EV, Kuz’minykh AI. Problem of the carcinogenic hazard in aluminium electrolysis halls. Professional’nyi Rak. 1974;87–91.
58. Björ O, Damber L, Edstrom C, Nilsson T. Long-term follow-up study of mortality and the incidence of cancer in a cohort of workers at a primary aluminum smelter in Sweden. Scand J Work Environ Health. 2008;34:463–470.
59. Milham S. Mortality in aluminum reduction workers. J Occup Med. 1979;21:475–480.
60. Gibbs GW, Sévigny M. Mortality and cancer experience of Quebec aluminum reduction plant workers. Part 3: monitoring the mortality of workers first employed after January 1, 1950. J Occup Environ Med. 2007;49:1269–1287.
61. Cullen MR, Checkoway H, Alexander BH. Investigation of a cluster of pituitary adenomas in workers in the aluminum industry. Occup Environ Med. 1996;53:782–786.
62. Fritschi L, Hoving JL, Sim MR, et al. All cause mortality and incidence of cancer in workers in bauxite mines and alumina refineries. Int J Cancer. 2008;123:882–887.
63. Friesen MC, Fritschi L, Del Monaco A, et al. Relationships between alumina and bauxite dust exposure and cancer, respiratory and circulatory disease. Occup Environ Med. 2009;66(9):615–618.
64. Gibbs GW, Howowitz I. Lung Cancer Mortality in Aluminum Plant Workers. A Final Report to Alcan Smelters and Chemicals. Montreal, Canada: McGill University, Department of Epidemiology and Health; 1976.
65. Armstrong B, Tremblay C, Baris D, Thériault G. Lung cancer mortality and polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons: a case-cohort study of aluminum production workers in Arvida, Quebec, Canada. Am J Epidemiol. 1994;139:250–262.
66. Armstrong B, Thériault G. Compensating lung cancer patients occupationally exposed to coal tar pitch volatiles. Occup Environ Med. 1996;53:160–167.
67. Gibbs GW. Mortality experience in Eastern Canada. In: Hughes JP, ed. Health Protection in Primary Aluminum Production 2. Proceedings of a Seminar, Montréal 22–24 September 1981. London, UK: International Primary Aluminum Institute; 1982:59–69.
68. Wigle DT. Bladder cancer: possible new high risk occupation. Lancet. 1977;ii:83–84.
69. Thériault G, De Guire L, Cordier S. Reducing aluminum: an occupation possibly associated with bladder cancer. Can Med Assoc J. 1981;124:419–425.
70. Thériault G, Tremblay C, Cordier S, Gingras S. Bladder cancer in the aluminum industry. Lancet. 1984;1:947–950.
71. Armstrong BG, Tremblay CG, Cyr D, Thériault GP. Estimating the relationship between exposure to tar volatiles and the incidence of bladder cancer in aluminum smelter workers. Scand J Work Environ Health. 1986;12:486–493.
72. Tremblay C, Armstrong B, Brodeur J, Thériault G. Estimation of risk of developing bladder cancer among workers exposed to coal tar pitch volatiles in the primary aluminium industry. Am J. Ind Med. 1995;27:335–348.
73. Friesen MC, Demers PA, Spinelli JJ, et al. Validation of a semi-quantitative job matrix at a Söderberg aluminum smelter. Ann Occup Hyg. 2003;47:455–484.
74. Enterline PE. Mortality experience in the United States. In: Hughes JP, ed. Health Protection in Primary Aluminum Production 2. Proceedings of a Seminar, Montréal 22–24 September 1981. London, UK: International Primary Aluminum Institute; 1982:53–58.
75. Milham S. Occupational Mortality in Washington State 1950–1971. Cincinnati, OH: DHEW Publication No (NIOSH) 76–175A,B,C; 1976.
76. Mori I. Cancer mortality among man-made graphite electrode manufacturing workers: results of a 38-year follow up. Occup Environ Med. 2002;59:473–480.
77. Teta JM, Ott MG, Schnatter AR. Population based mortality surveillance in carbon products manufacturing plants. Br J Ind Med. 1987;44:344–350.
78. Moulin JJ, Wild P, Mur JM, et al. Risk of lung larynx, pharynx and buccal cavity cancers among carbon electrode manufacturing workers. Scand J Work Environ Health. 1989;15:30–37.
79. Gustavsson P, Bellander T, Johansson L, Salmonsson S. Surveillance of mortality and cancer incidence among Swedish graphite electrode workers. Environ Res. 1995;70:7–10.
80. Donato F, Monarca S, Marchionna G, et al. Mortality from cancer and chronic respiratory diseases among workers who manufacture carbon electrodes. Occup Environ Med. 2000;57:484–487.
81. Merlo DF, Garattini S, Gelatti U, et al. A mortality cohort study among workers in a graphite electrode production plant in Italy. Occup Environ Med. 2004;61:e9. Available at http://oem.bmj.com/content/61/2/e9.full
. Accessed August 20, 2012.
82. Bradford Hill A. The environment and disease: association or causation? Proc Roy Soc Med. 1965;58:295–300.
83. IARC. IARC Monographs on the Evaluation of Carcinogenic Risks to Humans. A Review of Human Carcinogens: Chemical Agents and Related Occupations. Vol. 100F. Lyon, France: IARC; 2012.
84. Cogliano VJ, Baan R, Straif K, et al. Preventable exposures associated with human cancers. J Natl Cancer Inst. 2011;103:1827–1839.
85. Farant JP, Ogilvie D. Investigation of the presence of amino and nitro polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in a Söderberg primary aluminum smelter. Am Ind Hyg Assoc J. 2002;63:721–725.
86. Michaud DS, Kogevinas M, Cantor KP, et al. Total fluid and water consumption and the joint effect of exposure to disinfection by-products on risk of bladder cancer. Environ Health Perspect. 2007;115:1569–1572.
87. Jiang X, Castelao JE, Groshen S, et al. Water intake and bladder cancer risk in Los Angeles County. Int J Cancer. 2008;123:1649–1656.
88. Lee JE, Giovannucci E, Smith-Warner SA, et al. Total fluid intake and use of individual beverages and risk of renal cell cancer in two large cohorts. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 2006;15:1204–1211.
89. Hu J, Mao Y, DesMeules M, et al. Total fluid and specific beverage intake and risk of renal cell carcinoma in Canada. Cancer Epidemiol. 2009;33:355–362.