Fluoride Action Network


Fluorides are compounds that can be found in the minerals of soil with volcanic rocks. Different populations are exposed to high levels of fluorides through drinking water that, due to their chronic intake, cause several types of damage to health. Nails and hair, denominated as recent biomarkers, have been employed for monitoring systemic fluoride from long-term exposure to fluorides. The aim of this study was to perform a systematic review of the use of recent biomarkers for monitoring systemic fluoride levels in exposed populations and verify their validity in the measurement of the fluorine (F) concentration within the body. A digital search was performed in the databases PubMed/Medline, Springer Link, Cochrane, and Scopus of original articles that employed recent biomarkers for monitoring systemic F. Seventeen articles were included in this analysis; the recorded variables were the F amount in each assessed biomarker, source of exposure, and total daily fluoride intake (TDFI). TDFI was associated with F in nails and hair, as well as the exposure through drinking water. In conclusion, recent biomarkers are adequate for monitoring the systemic fluoride levels by evaluating the chronic/subchronic exposure through different sources, mainly drinking water, considering nails better than hair for this purpose.

*Read full-text article at https://www.mdpi.com/1660-4601/18/1/317/htm



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