Fluoride Action Network



  • Fluoride negatively influenced adrenals structures.
  • Fluoride interfered with steroid biosynthesis.
  • BMSC-EVs mitigated the toxic effects of fluoride on adrenals.
  • BMSC-EVs reprogramed injured adrenal cells by activating regenerative processes.


The adrenal glands have striking morpho-biochemical features that render them vulnerable to the effects of toxins.

Aims: This study was conducted to explore the therapeutic utility of extracellular vesicles derived from bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMSC-EVs) against fluoride-induced adrenal toxicity.

Materials and methods: The work included isolation and further identification of BMSC-EVs by transmission electron microscopy and flow cytometric analysis. Adrenal toxicity in rats was induced by oral administration of 300 ppm of sodium fluoride (NaF) in drinking water for 60 days followed by a single dose injection of BMSC-EVs. The effects of BMSC-EVs against NaF was evaluated by adrenal oxidant/antioxidant biomarkers, hormonal assay of plasma adrenocorticotrophic hormone (ACTH) and corticosterone (CORT) and mRNA gene expression quantitation for adrenal cortical steroidogenic pathway-encoding genes. Histopathological examination of the adrenal tissue was performed.

Key findings: BMSC-EVs were effectively isolated and characterized. NaF exposure decreased adrenal superoxide dismutase and catalase activities, increased adrenal malondialdehyde levels, elevated plasma ACTH, diminished CORT concentrations and downregulated the adrenal cortical steroidogenic pathway-encoding genes. In addition, NaF-induced marked adrenal histopathological lesions.

Significance: BMSC-EVs treatment repaired damaged adrenal tissue and recovered its function greatly following NaF consumption. BMSC-EVs reversed the toxic effects of NaF and reprogramed injured adrenal cells by activating regenerative processes.