Fluoride Action Network


Over the last 100–120 years, due to the ever-increasing importance of fluorine-containing compounds in modern technology and daily life, the explosive development of the fluorochemical industry led to an enormous increase of emission of fluoride ions into the biosphere. This made it more and more important to understand the biological activities, metabolism, degradation, and possible environmental hazards of such substances. This comprehensive and critical review focuses on the effects of fluoride ions and organofluorine compounds (mainly pharmaceuticals and agrochemicals) on human health and the environment. To give a better overview, various connected topics are also discussed: reasons and trends of the advance of fluorine-containing pharmaceuticals and agrochemicals, metabolism of fluorinated drugs, withdrawn fluorinated drugs, natural sources of organic and inorganic fluorine compounds in the environment (including the biosphere), sources of fluoride intake, and finally biomarkers of fluoride exposure.

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*Original abstract online at https://pubs.acs.org/doi/10.1021/acs.chemrev.0c01263