Forty male students were each exposed on two occasions to four hours of inhalation of either air or 500 ppm nitrous oxide with or without 15 ppm halothane in air. Immediately following exposure, a battery of tests of perceptual, cognitive and motor skills was administered. Compared with responses after breathing of air, those after exposure to nitrous oxide and halothane showed significant decrements in performances of a task in which attention was divided between auditory and visual signals, a visual tachistoscopic test, and memory tests involving digit span and recall of word pairs. Subjects exposed to nitrous oxide alone scored
significantly lower on the digit-span test only.
(Key words: Anesthetics, Volatile: halothane; Anesthetics, gases: nitrous oxide; Psychologic function.)
1. Linde HV, Bruce DL: Occupational exposure of anesthetists to halothane. nitrous oxide and radiation. Anesthesiology 30:363-368, 1969.
2. Corbett TH: Retention of anesthetic agents following occupational exposure. Anestl, Analg (Cleve) 52:614-Gli, 1973.
3. Salvini M, Binaschi S, Riva M: Evaluation of the psychophysiological functions in humans exposed to trichloroethylene. Br J Ind Med 28:293-295, 1971.
4. Bruce DL: A simple way to vent anesthetic gases. Anesth Analg (Cleve) 52:595-598, 197.3
The analog of Ginkgo biloba extract 761 is a protective factor of cognitive impairment induced by chronic fluorosis.
Ginkgo biloba extract EGb761 is widely used to treat patients with learning and memory impairment in Alzheimer's disease and Parkinson's disease in China. However, it is not yet clear whether the analog of EGb761 (EGb) has a protective effect on the learning and memory damage induced by chronic fluorosis. In
Systematic review of water fluoridation.
Objective: To review the safety and efficacy of fluoridation of drinking water. Design: Search of 25 electronic databases and world wide web. Relevant journals hand searched; further information requested from authors. Inclusion criteria were a predefined hierarchy of evidence and objectives. Study validity was assessed with checklists. Two reviewers independently screened
Decreased intelligence in children and exposure to fluoride and arsenic in drinking water.
Recent evidence suggests that fluoride (F) and arsenic (As) may adversely affect intelligence quotient (IQ) scores. We explore the association between exposure to F and As in drinking water and intelligence in children. Three rural communities in Mexico with contrasting levels of F and As in drinking water were studied:
Threshold effects of moderately excessive fluoride exposure on children's health: A potential association between dental fluorosis and loss of excellent intelligence.
Highlights Childhood fluoride exposure was inversely associated with dental health and IQ. Threshold and saturation effects for aforementioned associations existed. Moderate fluoride exposure was mainly related to excellent intelligence loss. Dental fluorosis may be useful to reflect excellent intelligence loss. BACKGROUND: Excessive fluoride exposure is associated with adverse health outcomes, but
Blood is thicker than water: Flaws in a National Toxicology Program study.
Municipal fluoridation was a mid-twentieth century innovation based on the medical hypothesis that consuming low doses of fluoride when young provided protection against cavities with only a small risk of mild dental fluorosis, a cosmetic effect. In the 21st century, more than half of American teens are afflicted by dental
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