High groundwater fluoride (F) is one of the major environmental hazards in the dry zone of Sri Lanka. The prolonged exposure to F at maximum contaminant levels can give rise to lifelong debility and disability among its inhabitants.
This study investigated the F contamination in groundwater resources in Sri Lanka above recommended Maximum Contaminant Levels (MCL) and possibilities to mitigate the health risk.
Groundwater samples (6107) were randomly collected from different geographic areas of the country, and categorised as hazardous, if it exceeded the maximum contaminant level of 4 mg/L (the level at which bone health is compromised). The minimum distances from a hazardous to a relatively safe F groundwater source (below 1.0 mg/L and 1.5 mg/L) were determined using geospatial analysis.
Results: Only 2.3% (142) of the total sample was found to be hazardous to skeletal health. Optimal F sources were identified in close proximity to highly contaminated sources (>4.0 mg/L), some even within a walking distance of 500 metres.
The identification and elimination of maximally contaminated sources, possibly by dilution with widely available low F sources in close proximity, would be a more feasible and cost effective approach to ensure long term public health benefits.
*Original abstract online at https://cmj.sljol.info/articles/abstract/10.4038/cmj.v63i4.8768/
Dental fluorosis prevalence, severity and associated risk factors in pre-school aged children residing in fluoride deficient regions of Georgia.
The aim of study was to assess prevalence, severity, and associated risk-factors for Dental Fluorosis in Pre-School children (1-6 years) in Fluoride deficient regions (1) Tbilisi (F=0.08-0.22 mg/l) and (2) Akhaltsikhe, (F<0.4 mg/l) Georgia, having different geographic location and socio-economic conditions. A cross-sectional study was carried out on 570 pre-school
Effects of water improvement and defluoridation on fluorosis-endemic areas in China: A meta-analysis.
Highlights The first analysis of the effect of improving water quality and reducing fluoride in China over 40 years. Analysis of the effect of water improvement and fluoride reduction in different provinces of China. We analyzed the effect of water improvement on dental fluorosis, skeletal fluorosis, and fluoride content
Dental fluorosis in children in areas with fluoride-polluted air, high-fluoride water, and low-fluoride water as well as low-fluoride air: a study of deciduous and permanent teeth in the Shaanxi province, China.
OBJECTIVE: The aim of the study was to assess dental fluorosis (DF) in the deciduous and permanent teeth of children in areas with high-F coal (area A) and high-F water (area C) compared to children from area B, with low-F water and coal. MATERIAL AND METHODS: 596 children were examined. DF
Fluoride affects enamel protein content via TGF-B1-mediated KLK4 inhibition
Dental fluorosis is caused by chronic high-level fluoride (F-) exposure during enamel development, and fluorosed enamel has a higher than normal protein content. Matrix metalloproteinase 20 cleaves enamel matrix proteins during the secretory stage, and KLK4 further cleaves these proteins during the maturation stage so that the proteins can be
Relationship of caries and fluorosis in adolescents from high- and low-fluoride areas in Iran
OBJECTIVE: The main aim of the study was to investigate the association between water fluoride concentration and caries as well as fluorosis occurrence in adolescents in Iran. As a secondary aim we studied the relationship between caries and fluorosis occurrence. BASIC RESEARCH DESIGN: We examined 12-16 year-olds (n = 373) in
Related Studies :
Diagnostic Criteria for Dental Fluorosis: The Thylstrup-Fejerskov (TF) Index
The traditional criteria (the "Dean Index") for diagnosing dental fluorosis was developed in the first half of the 20th century by H. Trendley Dean. While the Dean Index is still widely used in surveys of fluorosis -- including the CDC's national surveys of fluorosis in the United States -- dental
Racial Disparities in Dental Fluorosis
In 2005, the Centers for Disease Control published the results of a national survey of dental fluorosis conducted between 1999 and 2002. According to the CDC, black children in the United States have significantly higher rates of dental fluorosis than either white or Hispanic children. This was not the first time that black children were found to suffer higher rates of dental fluorosis. At least five other studies -- dating as far back as the 1960s -- have found black children in the United States are disproportionately impacted by dental fluorosis.
Dental Fluorosis: The "Cosmetic" Factor
Any condition that can cause children to be embarrassed about their physical appearance can have significant consequences on their self-esteem and confidence. Researchers have repeatedly found that "physical appearance [is] the best predictor of self-esteem" in adolescents, (Harter 2000) and that facial attractiveness, particularly the appearance of one's teeth, is a
Moderate/Severe Dental Fluorosis
In its "moderate" and severe forms, fluoride causes a marked increase in the porosity of the enamel. After eruption into mouth, the porous enamel of moderate to severe fluorosis readily takes up stain, creating permanent brown and black discolorations of the teeth. In addition to extensive staining, teeth with moderate to severe fluorosis are more prone to attrition and wear - leading to pitting, chipping, and decay.
Community Fluorosis Index (CFI)
The current Community Fluorosis Index for U.S. adolescents as a whole (from both fluoridated and non-fluoridated areas) is roughly 5 times higher than the CFI health authorities predicted for fluoridated areas when fluoridation first began. It is also higher than the CFI that the NIDR found in fluoridated areas back in the 1980s. It is readily apparent, therefore, that children are ingesting far more fluoride than was the case in the 1950s, and even as recently as the 1980s.
Related FAN Content :