High groundwater fluoride (F) is one of the major environmental hazards in the dry zone of Sri Lanka. The prolonged exposure to F at maximum contaminant levels can give rise to lifelong debility and disability among its inhabitants.
This study investigated the F contamination in groundwater resources in Sri Lanka above recommended Maximum Contaminant Levels (MCL) and possibilities to mitigate the health risk.
Groundwater samples (6107) were randomly collected from different geographic areas of the country, and categorised as hazardous, if it exceeded the maximum contaminant level of 4 mg/L (the level at which bone health is compromised). The minimum distances from a hazardous to a relatively safe F groundwater source (below 1.0 mg/L and 1.5 mg/L) were determined using geospatial analysis.
Results: Only 2.3% (142) of the total sample was found to be hazardous to skeletal health. Optimal F sources were identified in close proximity to highly contaminated sources (>4.0 mg/L), some even within a walking distance of 500 metres.
The identification and elimination of maximally contaminated sources, possibly by dilution with widely available low F sources in close proximity, would be a more feasible and cost effective approach to ensure long term public health benefits.
*Original abstract online at https://cmj.sljol.info/articles/abstract/10.4038/cmj.v63i4.8768/
High prevalence of dental fluorosis among adolescents is a growing concern: a school based cross-sectional study from Southern India.
Background Fluorosis, caused by ingestion of excessive amount of fluoride through food or water, is a major public health problem in India. This study was undertaken to quantify the dental fluorosis burden among school going adolescents and to find factors associated with dental fluorosis in Kolar taluka, Karnataka, India. Methods A total of
Dental fluorosis in the Vesuvius towns in AD 79: a multidisciplinary approach.
BACKGROUND: Endemic fluorosis induced by high concentrations of fluoride in groundwater and soils is a major health problem in several countries, particularly in volcanic areas. AIM: To evaluate the occurrence of dental fluorosis resulting from exposure to high levels of environmental fluoride in 79 AD Herculaneum and close Vesuvius towns. SUBJECTS AND
[Changes in fluoride levels in the blood serum and urine of children with mottled enamel].
The study comprised 46 children (25 boys and 21 girls) aged 10 to 14 years with endemic mottled enamel. From birth all children used aqueductal potable water containing supraoptimal amount of fluorine equal to 2,68 mg/ml. The control group consisted of 40 children from Lód? children care homes free from
Impact of Reducing Water Fluoride on Dental Caries and Fluorosis.
Guidance intended to reduce fluoride toothpaste ingestion in early childhood was introduced in Ireland in 2002. In 2007, water fluoride concentration was adjusted from 0.8–1.0 to 0.6–0.8 ppm. The objective of this study was to determine the difference in caries and fluorosis levels following introduction of these 2 policy measures.
The effect of fluoride on the immature enamel matrix protein of the rat.
Fluoride in drinking water decreased the total quantity of enamel matrix protein formed in rat incisors and altered the relative proportions of individual amino acids of the matrix.
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[caption id="attachment_8879" align="aligncenter" width="550"] Severe fluorosis - Photograph by David Kennedy, DDS[/caption] In its severe forms, dental fluorosis causes highly disfiguring brown and black staining of the teeth, which can cause chronic embarrassment and social anxiety for the impacted child. In 1984, a panel from the National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH) warned
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