- Maternal fluoride levels were associated with better cognitive scores in childhood.
- The neuropsychological association is gender dependent; only seen in boys.
- Positive associations do not disappear after adjustment by different covariates.
- A potential positive neuropsychological association at low fluoride levels cannot be excluded.
Cross-sectional and prospective studies have provided evidence of the neurotoxic effect of early exposure to fluoride (F) in pregnancy. It has been negatively associated with cognitive development during childhood, with most research conducted in areas with high F levels in community drinking water (CDW).
Data from 316 to 248 mother-child pairs from the Infancia y Medio Ambiente (Childhood and Environment, INMA) birth cohort project with maternal urinary F level adjusted for creatinine (MUFcr) measurements in the first and third trimesters of pregnancy. Children’s cognitive domains and intelligence indexes were evaluated using the Bayley Scales (age of 1) and the McCarthy Scales (age of 4). Multiple linear regression analyses were carried out adjusting for a wide range of covariates related to the child, mother, family context and other potential neurotoxicants.
No association was found between MUFcr levels and Bayley Mental Development Index score. Nevertheless, regarding the McCarthy scales, it was found that per unit (mg/g) of MUFcr across the whole pregnancy, scores in boys were greater for the verbal, performance, numeric and memory domains (B = 13.86, CI 95%: 3.91, 23.82), (B = 5.86, CI 95%: 0.32, 11.39), (B = 6.22, CI 95%: 0.65, 11.79) and (B = 11.63, CI 95%: 2.62, 20.63) respectively and for General Cognitive Index (B = 15.4, CI 95%: 6.32, 24.48). For girls there was not any cognitive score significantly associated with MUFcr, being the sex-F interactions significant (P interaction <0.05). Including other toxicants levels, quality of family context or deprivation index did not substantially change the results.
In boys, positive associations were observed between MUFcr and scores in cognitive domains at the age of 4. These findings are inconsistent with those from some previous studies and indicate the need for other population-based studies to confirm or overturn these results at low levels of F in CDW.
Fluoride exposure and children’s intelligence: Gene-environment interaction based on SNP-set, gene and pathway analysis, using a case-control design based on a cross-sectional study.
Highlights High intelligence was inversely correlated with water, urinary, hair and nail fluoride. Fluoride interacts with a SNP-set of rs3788319, rs1879417, rs57377675, rs11556505 and rs7187776 on intelligence. Fluoride interacts with mitochondrial function-related genes CLU and TOMM40 on intelligence. Multiple neurodevelopmental pathways related to metabolism may be involved in the
Investigation and evaluation on intelligence and growth of children in endemic fluorosis and arsenism areas.
“This study investigated the effects of arsenism and fluorosis on the mental ability (MA) and growth of children living in areas endemic for arsenism, fluorosis , or both. The children were divided into high arsenic/fluoride group (group 1), high fluoride group (group 2), high arsenic group (group 3), and control
Cognitive impairment and risk factors in elderly people living in fluorosis areas in China
Residents living in fluorosis areas generally experienced long-term exposure to excessive fluoride in drinking water. The adverse effects of high fluoride levels on the nervous system have been studied; however, the effect of fluoride exposure on cognitive functions of elderly people in fluorosis areas is rarely reported. This study was
The relationships between thyroid-stimulating hormone and/or dopamine levels in peripheral blood and IQ in children with different urinary iodine concentrations.
Highlights TSH is not related IQ in children with different urinary iodine concentrations. Dopamine in plasma is unrelated to IQ in children with adequate or excessive iodine. Dopamine has positive correlation with intelligence in iodine deficiency group. The interaction between dopamine in plasma and TSH is not related to
WITHDRAWN: Co-exposure effects of arsenic and fluoride on intelligence and oxidative stress in school-aged children: a cohort study.
This article has been withdrawn at the request of the editor. The Publisher apologizes for any inconvenience this may cause. as of November 6, 2020 Highlights Pioneer biomonitoring study on rural children to address As and F- co-exposure. High dental Fluorosis found in relation to urinary As and F- levels in
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