- Adolescents with elevated urinary fluoride concentrations exhibit more somatization symptoms.
- Males may represent an at-risk population for fluoride-related internalizing behaviors.
- While somatization is typically comorbid with anxiety and depression, fluoride concentrations were not associated with increased depressive or anxiety symptoms.
Early, chronic, low-level fluoride exposure has been linked to attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and learning deficits in children. Rodent studies suggest a link between fluoride exposure and internalizing behaviors. No human studies have examined the impact of fluoride on internalizing behaviors during adolescence.
To evaluate the relationship between urinary fluoride and early adolescent internalizing symptoms in the Cincinnati Childhood Allergy and Air Pollution Study (CCAAPS).
Participants in CCAAPS provided non-fasting spot urine samples at age 12 years (n = 286). Urine samples were analyzed using a microdiffusion method to determine childhood urinary fluoride (CUF) concentrations and were log transformed for analyses. Caregivers of CCAAPS participants completed the Behavior Assessment System for Children-2 (BASC-2) at the age 12 study visit to assess internalizing symptoms (e.g., anxiety, depression, somatization), and a composite score of the three domains; T-scores > 60 were used to identify adolescents in a clinically “at-risk” range. Race, age of the adolescent, household income, maternal age at birth, caregiver depression, caregiver-child relationships, and age 12-year serum cotinine concentrations were considered covariates in regression models. Sex-specific effects of fluoride exposures were investigated through the inclusion of interaction terms.
Higher CUF concentrations were significantly associated with increased somatization (B = 3.64, 95% CI 0.49, 6.81) and internalizing composite T-scores in a clinically “at-risk” range (OR = 2.9, 95% CI 1.24, 6.9). Compared to females, males with higher CUF concentrations had more internalizing (pinteraction = 0.04) and somatization symptoms (pinteraction = 0.02) and were nearly seven times more likely to exhibit “at-risk” internalizing symptomology. CUF concentrations were not significantly associated with depression or anxiety symptoms.
This is the first study to link fluoride exposure and internalizing symptoms, specifically somatization. Somatization represents an interface of physical and psychological health. Continued follow-up will help shed light on the sex-specific relationship between fluoride and mental health and the role of somatization.
Association of water fluoride and urinary fluoride concentrations with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder in Canadian youth.
A correction to an error in Table 4 was made. See correction at https://fluoridealert.org/studytracker/41631/ and also below. Highlights UFSG did not significantly predict ADHD diagnosis or ADHD-type symptoms. Higher tap water fluoride was associated with higher odds of an ADHD diagnosis. Higher water fluoride was associated with more ADHD-type symptoms for
Fluoride Exposure and Neurodevelopmental Outcomes Among Children in the United States: A pilot study.
Background/Aim: Developmental neurotoxicity of fluoride has been demonstrated in animal studies. Additionally, fluoride exposure during prenatal development, infancy, middle-to-late childhood and adolescence has been associated with poorer neurodevelopmental outcomes among children in Mexico and/or Canada. However, potential impacts of chronic low-level fluoride exposure in early childhood on brain structure and
Environmental Fluoride 1977 by Rose & Marier
The Associate Committee on Scientific Criteria for Environmental Quality was established by the National Research Council of Canada in response to a mandate provided by the Federal Government to develop scientific guidelines for defining the quality of the environment. The concern of the NRC Associate Committee is strictly with scientific
The relationships between thyroid-stimulating hormone and/or dopamine levels in peripheral blood and IQ in children with different urinary iodine concentrations.
Highlights TSH is not related IQ in children with different urinary iodine concentrations. Dopamine in plasma is unrelated to IQ in children with adequate or excessive iodine. Dopamine has positive correlation with intelligence in iodine deficiency group. The interaction between dopamine in plasma and TSH is not related to
DNA methylation and fluoride exposure in school-age children: Epigenome-wide screening and population-based validation.
Highlights Long-term fluoride exposure affects the genomic DNA methylation pattern in children. The methylation status of NNAT and CALCA are susceptible to long-term F exposure. NNAT gene methylation is negatively correlated with fluoride exposure. CALCA gene methylation and fluoride exposure are positively associated. Excessive fluoride exposure and epigenetic change can
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NRC (2006): Fluoride's Neurotoxicity and Neurobehavioral Effects
The NRC's analysis on fluoride and the brain.
Factors which increase the risk for skeletal fluorosis
The risk for developing skeletal fluorosis, and the course the disease will take, is not solely dependent on the dose of fluoride ingested. Indeed, people exposed to similar doses of fluoride may experience markedly different effects. While the wide range in individual response to fluoride is not yet fully understood, the following are some of the factors that are believed to play a role.
Mayo Clinic: Fluoridation & Bone Disease in Renal Patients
The available evidence suggests that some patients wtih long-term renal failure are being affected by drinking water with as little as 2 ppm fluoride. The finding of adverse effects in patients drinking water with 2 ppm of fluoride suggests that a few similar cases may be found in patients imbibing 1 ppm, especially if large volumes are consumed, or in heavy tea drinkers. The finding of adverse effects in patients drinking water with 2 ppm of fluoride suggests that a few similar cases may be found in patients imbibing 1 ppm, especially if large volumes are consumed, or in heavy tea drinkers and if fluoride is indeed the cause. It would seem prudent, therefore, to monitor the fluoride intake of patients with renal failure living in high fluoride areas.
Fluoride Exposure Aggravates the Impact of Iodine Deficiency
A consistent body of animal and human research shows that fluoride exposure worsens the impact of an iodine deficiency. Iodine is the basic building block of the T3 and T4 hormones and thus an adequate iodine intake is essential for the proper functioning of the thyroid gland. When iodine intake is inadequate during infancy and
Fluoride: Developmental Neurotoxicity.
Developmental Neurotoxicity There has been a tremendous amount of research done on the association of exposure to fluoride with developmental neurotoxicity. There are over 60 studies reporting reduced IQ in children and several on the impaired learning/memory in animals. And there are studies which link fluoride to Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder. Teaching
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