Fluoride Action Network



  • L. johnsonii BS15 could protects the kidney tissue from renal lesion and dysfunction induced by high fluoride exposure.
  • Colonic microbial structure and diversity was significantly altered by fluoride exposure and probiotic treatment.
  • Fluoride- and probiotic-altered sensitive and well-connected species may be closely related to renal health.

Fluoride (F) exposure was widely reported to be associated with renal diseases. Since absorbed F enters the organism from drinking water mostly through the gastrointestinal tract, investigating changes of gut microbes may have profound implications for the prevention of chronic F exposure because increasing evidence supported the existence of the gut-kidney axis. In the present study, we aimed to explore the potential positive effects of probiotics on high F exposure-induced renal lesions and dysfunction in mice by the modulation of the colonic microbiota. Mice were fed with normal (Ctrl group) or sodium-fluoride (F and Prob groups; 100 mg/L sodium fluoride (NaF)) drinking water with or without Lactobaillus johnsonii BS15, a probiotic strain proven to be preventive for F exposure. Mice fed with sodium-fluoride drinking water alone exhibited renal tissue damages, decreased the renal antioxidant capability and dysfunction. In contrast, L. johnsonii BS15 reversed these F-induced renal changes. 16S rRNA gene sequencing shows that L. johnsonii BS15 alleviated the increased community diversity (Shannon diversity) and richness index (number of observed features) as well as the distured structure of colon microbiota in F-exposed mice. A total of 13 OTUs with increased relative abundance were identified as the keystone OTUs in F-exposed mice based on the analysis of degree of co-occurrence and abundance of OTUs. Moreover, Spearman’s rank correlation shows that the 13 keystone OTUs had negative effect on renal health and intestinal integrity. L. johnsonii BS15 reversed four of keystone OTUs (OTU 5, OTU 794, OTU 1035, and OTU 868) changes which might be related to the underlying protected mechanism of L. johnsonii BS15 against F-induced renal damages.


16S rRNA sequencing
Fluoride-induced damages
Gut microbota
Renal dysfunction