Fluoride Action Network



  • Responses in NaF-exposed freshwater snail, Bellamya bengalensis was estimated.
  • Mortality increased with elevated fluoride concentrations and increasing exposure period.
  • Altered behavior and lowered oxygen consumption were concentration-dependent.
  • Decreased haemocyte count could impact respiratory capacity.
  • Reduced protein content in hepatopancreas indicate impaired protein synthesis.

There is limited information on fluoride toxicity and risk overview on ecotoxicological risks to aquatic invertebrate populations particularly molluscan taxa. This necessitated the assessment of toxicity responses in the freshwater snail, Bellamya bengalensis exposed to environmentally relevant concentrations of sodium fluoride. Under lethal exposures (150, 200, 250, 300, 400 and 450 mg/l), the median lethal concentrations (LC50) were determined to be 422.36, 347.10, 333.33 and 273.24 mg/l for B. bengalensis at 24, 48, 72 and 96 h respectively. The rate of mortality of the snails was increased significantly with elevated concentrations of the toxicant. The magnitude of toxicity i.e., toxicity factor at different time scale was also higher with increased exposure duration. Altered behavioural changes i.e., crawling movement, tentacle movement, clumping tendency, touch reflex and mucous secretion in exposed snail with elevated concentrations and exposure duration. Similarly, oxygen consumption rate of the treated snail also lowered significantly during 72 and 96 h of exposure. Under 30-day chronic exposures (Control-0.00 mg/L; T1–27.324 mg/L; T2–54.648 mg/L), protein concentrations in gonad and hepatopancreas of exposure groups was significantly lowered. Chronic exposures also revealed lowered haemocytes counts in exposure groups. The potential for loss of coordination, respiratory distress and physiological disruption in organisms exposed to environmentally relevant concentrations of fluoride was demonstrated by this study. The estimation and magnitude of toxicity responses are necessary for a more accurate estimation of ecological risks to molluscan taxa and invertebrate populations under acute and chronic fluoride exposures in the wild.


Bellamya bengalensis
Toxicity factor
Behavioural responses
Oxygen consumption
Protein content