Association of water fluoride and urinary fluoride concentrations with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder in Canadian youth
Riddell et al. [Environ Int 2019; 133(Pt B): 105190], have reported an error in their paper. In Table 4, the fourth column was originally labelled as Adjusted Odds Ratio (aOR) when it should have been labelled as a Beta Coefficient (B). A corrected version of Table 4 is presented below. The authors apologize for the error.
Table 4. Adjusted Odds Ratio (aOR) and Beta Coefficient (B) for the association between fluoride exposure and ADHD diagnosis and inattentive/hyperactive symptoms.
|ADHD diagnosis||SDQ H/I subscale score|
|aORa||95% CI||Ba||95% CI|
|UFSG (mg/L) b||0.96||0.63, 1.46||0.31||-0.04, 0.66|
|Fluoride in tap water (mg/L)||6.10*||1.60, 22.8||0.31*c||0.04, 0.58|
|75th percentile age||—d||–||1.52*||0.23, 2.80|
|25th percentile age||–||–||-0.33||-1.51, 0.84|
|CWF statuse||1.21*||1.03, 1.42||0.11*||0.02, 0.20|
|75th percentile age||2.84*||1.40, 5.76||0.70*||0.34, 1.06|
|25th percentile age||0.91||0.41, 1.99||0.04||-0.38, 0.46|
Abbreviations: ADHD = Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder; CWF = community water fluoridation; aOR = adjusted odds ratio; B = beta estimate; SDQ H/I = Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire Hyperactivity-Inattention.
Adjusted for child’s sex, age at interview, ethnicity (white or other), Body Mass Index, highest level of parental education, total household income, exposure to cigarette smoke inside the home (yes/no), concurrent blood lead level (log10-transformed).
Non-significant main effect of urinary fluoride level predicting ADHD diagnosis (B = -0.04, p = .84, N = 119/1635 with ADHD/total sample) or SDQ subscale score (B = 0.31, p = .08, N = 1532).
Interaction between age and water fluoride level predicting SDQ subscale score (B = 0.31, p = .03, N = 588).
Since the interaction between age and water fluoride was not significant, only the main effects are presented for the logistic regression predicting ADHD diagnosis from fluoride in tap water (mg/L; N = 39/626 with ADHD/total sample).
Significant interaction between age and CWF status predicting ADHD diagnosis (B = 0.19, p = .03, N = 65/1173 with ADHD/total sample) and SDQ subscale score (B = 0.11, p = .01, N = 1118).
*Corrigendum online at https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0160412022000174?via%3Dihub