Belchampa-Pratappur villages about 8 Kms towards East from district head-quarter Garhwa has been undertaken to study the groundwater quality, especially fluoride contamination. These places are situated on the border of the Garhwa and Palamu district. Bishrampur is the prominent place lying to about 11 km east of area under consideration. The area is underlain mostly by granite and gneisses. Fluoride containing minerals as indeed Fluorite, apatite, different amphiboles and micas occur in association with these rocks. 18 Groundwater samples during Pre-and Post-monsoon have been collected from tube wells and analyzed for major cation ( Ca+2,Mg+2,Na+,K+) and anion (HCO3-, Cl- ,SO42-,F-) in addition to fluoride. Fluoride concentration as high as 5 mg/l has been found in many samples of groundwater in the area, which is above the admissible limit of 1.5 mg/l (WHO). The inhabitants of these two villages belong to very poor economic background and of diverse communities. Many people of these villages are fluoride affected. Dental and Skeletal fluorosis is common in the area, which is very alarming. The total dissolved solid (T.D.S.) is also found to be much higher, at many places. It ranges from 586 mg/l to 408 mg/l in pre-monsoon and 736 mg/l to 194 mg/l in post monsoon season respectively. Consequently the electrical conductivity is also much higher at several places which ranges from 915 micro mhos/cm to 637 micro mhos/cm at 250C in pre-monsoon and 1150 micro mhos/cm to 303 micro mhos/cm in post-monsoon season respectively. In the present study the admeasurement pattern of fluoride concentration in the groundwater and its sources have been emphasized. Defluoridation has also been suggested to overcome the fluoride problems in the area.
Keywords:-Fluoride, Groundwater, Dental and Skeletal Fluorosis, Defluoridation