In the rural areas of India, fl uoridated drinking water, industrial fluoride pollution and fluoride rich feed phosphate supplements are the major sources of fluoride exposure for domesticated water buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis). However, the fluoridated drinking groundwater is the commonest and principal source of fluoride exposure for these ruminants. Chronic fluoride exposure for longtime deteriorate the animal health and causes the fluorosis disease. In the country, the drinking groundwater sources of villages are contaminated with fluoride beyond the threshold value, 1.0 or 1.5 mg/L. At 1.5-1.7 ppm fluoride concentration in drinking water, 62.2% and 21.6% calves and 55.9% and 48.3% adult buffaloes are found to be afflicted with dental and skeletal fluorosis, respectively. The maximum prevalence of dental and skeletal fluorosis, 96.8% and 34.4% in calves and 66.9% and 60.2% in adult buffaloes has also been reported at or > 3.0 ppm fluoride in drinking water, respectively. However, calves are found to be more sensitive and susceptible to chronic fluoride toxicity or fluorosis. Besides the deterioration of the animal health, chronic fluoride intoxication in buffaloes also weakens the rural economy which has been focussed in the present review. In this communication, besides the status of chronic fluoride intoxication in the form of osteo-dental and non-skeletal fluorosis in buffaloes, determinations, bio-indicators and bio-markers of fluorosis and prevention and control of chronic fluoride poisoning in these animals are also considered and briefly and critically reviewed. Simultaneously, research gaps are also identified and highlighted them for further research study on chronic fluoride intoxication in buffaloes. Findings of this review may help in preparation of health policy for improving the health and mitigation of fluorosis in economically important buffalo animals in the country.