The chronic kidney disease of unknown etiology (CKDu) is a global health concern primarily impacting tropical farming communities. Although the precise etiology is debated, CKDu is associated with environmental exposures including heat stress and chemical contaminants such as fluoride, heavy metals, and herbicide glyphosate. However, a comprehensive synthesis is lacking on molecular networks underpinning renal damage induced by these factors. Addressing this gap, here we present key molecular events associated with heat and chemical exposures. We identified that caspase activation and lipid peroxidation are common endpoints of glyphosate exposure, while vasopressin and polyol pathways are associated with heat stress and dehydration. Heavy metal exposure is shown to induce lipid peroxidation and endoplasmic reticulum stress from ROS activated MAPK, NF?B, and caspase. Collectively, we identify that environmental exposure induced increased cellular oxidative stress as a common mechanism mediating renal cell inflammation, apoptosis, and necrosis, likely contributing to CKDu initiation and progression.
*Original abstract online at https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1382668922000436?via%3Dihub