- Fluoride exposure induces mitochondrial function dysfunction.
- Fluoride exposure mediates organs injury involved in apoptosis and autophagy.
- Fluoride exposure induces inflammatory reaction.
- Fluoride exposure results changes in intestinal microbial abundance.
Fluoride is an important trace element in the living body. A suitable amount of fluoride has a beneficial effect on the body, but disproportionate fluoride entering the body will affect various organs and systems, especially the liver, kidney, nervous system, endocrine system, reproductive system, bone, and intestinal system. In recent years, with the rapid development of agriculture and industry, fluoride pollution has become one of the important factors of environmental pollution, and fluoride pollution in any form is becoming a serious problem. Although countries around the world have made great breakthroughs in controlling fluoride pollution, however fluorosis still exists. A large amount of fluoride accumulated in animals will not only produce the toxic effects, but it also causes cell damage and affect the normal physiological activities of the body. There is no systematic description of the damage mechanism of fluoride. Therefore, the study on the toxicity mechanism of fluoride is still in progress. This review summarizes the existing information of several molecular mechanisms of the fluoride toxicity comprehensively, aiming to clarify the toxic mechanism of fluoride on various body systems. We have also summerized the pathological changes of those organ systems after fluoride poisoning in order to provide some ideas and solutions to the reader for the prevention and control of modern fluoride pollution.
0. After fluoride enters the body, it induces the production of caspase-12,caspase-9,caspase-3, caspase-7 through different ways, causes cell apoptosis and induces body damage.
1. After fluoride enters the body, it induces the production of autophagy markers U1K1, Atg13, LC3 and Beclin1 through mTOR signaling pathway, resulting in autophagy.
2. After fluoride enters the body, it affects the antioxidant system of various organs, inhibits the activity of antioxidant enzymes, increases reactive oxygen species and the occurrence of oxidative stress.
3. Fluoride promotes the degradation of IkBB, activate NF-kB pathway, increase the content of proinflammatory cytokines TNF- a, IL-6 and IL-1 B, and induce inflammation.
Protective effects of blackberry and quercetin on sodium fluoride-induced oxidative stress and histological changes in the hepatic, renal, testis and brain tissue of male rat
BACKGROUND: Sodium fluoride (NaF) intoxication is associated with oxidative stress and altered antioxidant defense mechanism. The present study was carried out to evaluate the potential protective role of blackberry and quercetin (Q) against NaF-induced oxidative stress and histological changes in liver, kidney, testis and brain tissues of rats. METHODS: The rats
Protective effects of vitamin C against fluoride toxicity.
Fluorine is a highly toxic substance that is widely distributed with drinking water and nutrients. While fluorine is not free in nature, it can form compounds with almost all metals and nonmetals except oxygen and inert gases. Fluorine is found in the environment in water, soil, air, nutrients, and vegetation
Chronic exposure to environmentally relevant concentration of fluoride alters Ogg1 and Rad51 expressions in mice: Involvement of epigenetic regulation.
Highlights Almost 200 million people all over the world are facing dreadful effects of fluoride. Mice were treated orally with environmentally relevant concentration of fluoride for 8 months. Fluoride treatment resulted into histopathology, oxidative stress response and transcriptional alterations of Ogg1 and Rad51. DNA fragmentations and apoptosis induction was
Hesperidin protects liver and kidney against sodium fluoride-induced toxicity through anti-apoptotic and anti-autophagic mechanisms.
Highlights Hesperidin prevented NaF-induced hepatotoxicity and nephrotoxicity. Hesperidin attenuated NaF-induced oxidative stress and inflammation. Hesperidin reduced NaF-induced apoptosis and autophagy. Aim High dose of fluoride intake is associated with toxic effects on liver and kidney tissues. One approach to tackle these toxicities is using natural antioxidants as supplements. This study evaluated
Conceivable amelioration of NaF-induced toxicity in liver, kidney and brain of chicken by black tea extract: an in vitro study.
Sodium fluoride (NaF) toxicity on enzymatic and non-enzymatic oxidative stress markers of chicken liver, kidney and brain homogenate in in vitro condition where studied in present investigation. We studied alteration in the activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), lipid peroxidation (LPO) and glutathione (GSH) content to study oxidative stress.
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Fluoride content in tea and its relationship with tea quality.
J Agric Food Chem. 2004 Jul 14;52(14):4472-6. Fluoride content in tea and its relationship with tea quality. Lu Y, Guo WF, Yang XQ. Department of Tea Science, Zhejiang University, 268 Kaixuan Road, Hangzhou 310027, People's Republic of China. Abstract: The tea plant is known as a fluorine accumulator. Fluoride (F) content in fresh leaves collected
NRC (2006): Fluoride's Neurotoxicity and Neurobehavioral Effects
The NRC's analysis on fluoride and the brain.
Fluoride: Developmental Neurotoxicity.
Developmental Neurotoxicity There has been a tremendous amount of research done on the association of exposure to fluoride with developmental neurotoxicity. There are over 60 studies reporting reduced IQ in children and several on the impaired learning/memory in animals. And there are studies which link fluoride to Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder. Teaching
Fluoride's Effect on Male Reproductive System - Human Studies
Consistent with in vitro and animal research, studies of human populations have reported associations between fluoride exposure and damage to the male reproductive system. Most notably, a scientist at the Food & Drug Administration reported in 1994 that populations in the United States with more than 3 ppm fluoride in their water had lower "total fertility rates" than populations with lower fluoride levels.
Nutrient Deficiencies Enhance Fluoride Toxicity
It has been known since the 1930s that poor nutrition enhances the toxicity of fluoride. As discussed below, nutrient deficiencies have been specifically linked to increased susceptibility to fluoride-induced tooth damage (dental fluorosis), bone damage (osteomalacia), neurotoxicity (reduced intelligence), and mutagenicity. The nutrients of primary importance appear to be calcium,
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