Fluoride Action Network

Abstract

The intake of high concentrations of fluoride, mainly through drinking water, diet and fluoridated dentifrices, produces fluorosis, which in its early stages is manifested as dental fluorosis (DF). To recognize exposure to fluoride in endemic areas and to evaluate the risk of developing health impairment, the WHO has established several biomarkers that are used to determine systemic fluorine (F) exposure. Thus, the aim of this study was to conduct a systematic review and meta-analysis of the relationship between the severity of DF and fluoride biomarkers in endemic areas. The protocol of this study was previously registered as CRD42021244974. A digital search was carried out in PubMed/Medline, SpringerLink, Scopus, Cochrane and Google Scholar by employing the keywords “urine”, “nails”, “hair”, “plasma”, “saliva” and “dental fluorosis” for the original studies with content associated with F for the biomarkers and DF. The mean difference was established as the effect measure for the meta-analysis. Seven studies fulfilled the eligibility criteria, among which five assessed urine and two employed nails as fluoride biomarkers. A positive significant difference was found between the biomarkers and the severity of DF (0.27, p < 0.001) and individually for each biomarker (urine: 0.14, p = 0.001; nails: 0.88, p < 0.05). The F concentration in urine and nails is correlated with the severity of DF, with the most evident differences between healthy individuals and those with mild severity. Both biomarkers are adequate to assess this relationship in endemic areas of fluoride and DF.


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*Original abstract online at https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s12011-022-03227-1


 

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*Original abstract online at https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s12011-022-03227-1