Purpose: How coronary arterial 18F-sodium fluoride (18F-NaF) uptake on positron emission tomography changes over the long term and what clinical factors impact the changes remain unclear. We sought to investigate the topics in this study.
Methods: We retrospectively studied 15 patients with >1 coronary atherosclerotic lesion/s detected on cardiac computed tomography who underwent baseline and follow-up (interval of >3 years) 18F-NaF positron emission tomography/computed tomography scans. Focal 18F-NaF uptake in each lesion was quantified using maximum tissue-to-background ratio (TBRmax). The temporal change in TBRmax was assessed using a ratio of follow-up to baseline TBRmax (R-TBRmax).
Results: A total of 51 lesions were analyzed. Mean R-TBRmax was 0.96 ± 0.21. CT-based lesion features (location, obstructive stenosis, plaque types, features of high-risk plaque) did not correlate with an increase in R-TBRmax. In multivariate analysis, baseline TBRmax significantly correlated with higher follow-up TBRmax ( = 0.57, P < 0.0001), and the presence of diabetes mellitus significantly correlated with both higher follow-up TBRmax (B = 0.34, P = 0.001) and elevated R-TBRmax (B = 0.40, P = 0.003).
Conclusion: Higher coronary arterial 18F-NaF uptake is likely to remain continuously high. Diabetes mellitus affects the long-term increase in coronary arterial 18F-NaF uptake.
Keywords: Atherosclerosis; CAD; Diseases/processes; Modalities; Molecular imaging agents; PET; Tests; Tracers; Vascular imaging.
*Original study online at https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s12350-022-02975-w
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