Fluoride Action Network



Azoles are among the most effective and widely used class of antifungals for prophylaxis as well as empirical and directed therapy against yeast and mould infections. Their use appears to be increasing worldwide. All triazoles cause hepatotoxicity, drug–drug interactions, and QTc prolongation (except isavuconazole); however, there are growing concerns following increasing reports of off-target endocrinologic adverse events. Skeletal fluorosis, pseudohyperaldosteronism, adrenal insufficiency, hyponatraemia and hypogonadism have all been documented in relation to azole use, causing considerable morbidity. The following review provides new insights into the clinical incidence and underlying pathophysiology of azole-associated endocrinopathies. Routine clinical and biochemical monitoring (including therapeutic drug monitoring) of endocrinologic adverse events may play a role in their prevention and progression. Novel azoles in preclinical and clinical stages of development may offer therapeutic advantages due to their greater selectivity of binding to fungal CYP51. The integration of pharmacogenomics into routine clinical practice holds future promise in guiding antifungal drug and dose selection to reduce the risk of off-target phenomena, including endocrinologic adverse events.

*Original abstract online at https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/abs/pii/S0924857922000899?via%3Dihub