Fluoride Action Network


Fluoride is ubiquitous in the environment. Furthermore, drinking water represents the main source of exposure to fluoride for humans. Interestingly, low fluoride concentrations have beneficial effects on bone and teeth development; however, chronic fluoride exposure has harmful effects on human health. Besides, preclinical studies associate fluoride toxicity with oxidative stress, inflammation, and apoptosis. On the other hand, it is well-known that mitochondria play a key role in reactive oxygen species production. By contrast, fluoride’s effect on processes such as mitochondrial dynamics, biogenesis and mitophagy are little known. These processes modulate the size, content, and distribution of mitochondria and their depuration help to counter the reactive oxygen species production and cytochrome c release, thereby allowing cell survival. However, a maladaptive response could enhance fluoride-induced toxicity. The present review gives a brief account of fluoride-induced mitochondrial alterations on soft and hard tissues, including liver, reproductive organs, heart, brain, lung, kidney, bone, and tooth.


Environmental health
Mitochondrial dynamics
Mitochondrial biogenesis
Mitochondrial toxicity

*Original abstract online at https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1382668922001090?via%3Dihub