Fluoride Action Network



Protective effect of royal jelly (RJ) on fluoride-induced nephrotoxicity was investigated in this study.


42 healthy male Wistar rats (n = 42, 8 weeks of age) were divided equally into 6 groups with 7 rats in each; (1) Group-1: Controls fed with standard diet; (2) Group-2: RJ [100 mg/kg] bw (body weight), by oral gavage; (3) Group-3: Fluoride [50 mg/kg] bw, in drinking water; (4) Group-4: Fluoride [100 mg/kg] bw, in drinking water; (5) Group-5: RJ [100 mg/kg] bw, by oral gavage + Fluoride [50 mg/kg] bw, in drinking water; (6) Group-6: RJ [100 mg/kg] bw, by oral gavage + Fluoride [100?mg/kg] bw, in drinking water. After 8 weeks, all rats were decapitated and their kidney tissues were removed for further analysis. The protein expression levels of caspase-3, caspase-6, caspase-9, Bcl-2, Bax, VEGF, GSK-3, BDNF, COX-2 and TNF-a proteins in kidney tissue were analysed by western blotting technique


RJ increased Bcl-2, COX-2, GSK-3, TNF-a and VEGF protein levels and a decreased caspase-3, caspase -6, caspase-9, Bax and BDNF protein levels in fluoride-treated rats.


RJ application may have a promising therapeutical potential in the treatment of many diseases in the future by reducing kidney damage.

*Original abstract online at https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/1354750X.2022.2093977?journalCode=ibmk20