Fluoride Action Network



  • The risk of chronic endemic fluorosis exists in many countries and regions.
  • Comprehensive metabolomic analysis was used to study the effects of fluoride.
  • Multivariate statistics were used to detect metabolite profile changes.
  • Fluoride exposure caused amino acid, fatty acid, and energy metabolism disorders.
  • Fluoride exposure caused oxidative stress, inflammation, and mitochondrial damage.

Fluoride is widely present in the environment. Excessive fluoride exposure leads to fluorosis, which has become a global public health problem and will cause damage to various organs and tissues. Only a few studies focus on serum metabolomics, and there is still a lack of systematic metabolomics associated with fluorosis within the main organs. Therefore, in the current study, a non-targeted metabolomics method using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) was used to research the effects of fluoride exposure on metabolites in different organs, to uncover potential biomarkers and study whether the affected metabolic pathways are related to the mechanism of fluorosis. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into two groups: a control group and a fluoride exposure group. GC-MS technology was used to identify metabolites. Multivariate statistical analysis identified 16, 24, 20, 20, 24, 13, 7, and 13 differential metabolites in the serum, liver, kidney, heart, hippocampus, cortex, kidney fat, and brown fat, respectively, in the two groups of rats. Fifteen metabolic pathways were affected, involving toxic mechanisms such as oxidative stress, mitochondrial damage, inflammation, and fatty acid, amino acid and energy metabolism disorders. This study provides a new perspective on the understanding of the mechanism of toxicity associated with sodium fluoride, contributing to the prevention and treatment of fluorosis.