- Toxicity of Sri Lanka’s local water in a CKDu prevalent area is evaluated in zebrafish.
- Exposure to Sri Lanka’s local water and high hardness and F- solutions causes kidney damage.
- Exposure to Sri Lanka’s local water disturbs expression levels of kidney-related genes.
How local groundwater induces chronic kidney disease of unknown etiology (CKDu) in Sri Lanka is still elusive. This study aims to elucidate the impacts of Sri Lanka’s local groundwater in a CKDu prevalent area and reveal the possible pathogenic mechanism of CKDu using zebrafish models. The drinking water from the local underground well in Vavuniya was sampled and the water quality parameters including Na+, Mg2+, K+, Ca2+, Cl–, NO3-, SO42-, and F– were analyzed. Then, local groundwater exposure to zebrafish larvae and 293T cells was performed, and water with high hardness and fluoride was prepared as parallel groups. Our result showed that exposure to Sri Lanka’s local groundwater caused developmental toxicity, kidney damage, and pronephric duct obstruction as well as abnormal behavior in zebrafish. Similar results were also found after exposure to water with high hardness and fluoride in zebrafish. Further, the expression levels of marker genes related to renal development and functions (foxj1a, dync2h1, pkd2, gata3, and slc20a1) were significantly altered, which is also confirmed in the 293T cells. Taken together, those results indicated that Sri Lanka’s local groundwater in a CKDu prevalent area could cause kidney damage, implying that high water hardness and fluorine might be the inducible environmental factors for the etiological cause of CKDu.
*Original abstract online at https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/abs/pii/S0166445X22002028?via%3Dihub
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