Fluoride, one of the global groundwater contaminants, is ubiquitous in our day-to-day life from various natural and anthropogenic sources. Numerous in vitro, in vivo, and epidemiological studies are conducted to understand the effect of fluoride on biological systems. A low concentration of fluoride is reported to increase oral health, whereas chronic exposure to higher concentrations causes fluoride toxicity (fluorosis). It includes dental fluorosis, skeletal fluorosis, and fluoride toxicity in soft tissues. The mechanism of fluoride toxicity has been reviewed extensively. However, epigenetic regulation in fluoride toxicity has not been reviewed. This systematic review summarizes the current knowledge regarding fluoride-induced epigenetic toxicity in the in vitro, in vivo, and epidemiological studies in mammalian systems. We examined four databases for the association between epigenetics and fluoride exposure. Out of 932 articles (as of 31 March 2022), 39 met our inclusion criteria. Most of the studies focused on different genes, and overall, preliminary evidence for epigenetic regulation of fluoride toxicity was identified. We further highlight the need for epigenome studies rather than candidate genes and provide recommendations for future research. Our results indicate a correlation between fluoride exposure and epigenetic processes. Further studies are warranted to elucidate and confirm the mechanism of epigenetic alterations mediated fluoride toxicity.
*Original full-text article online at: https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/10408444.2022.2122771?journalCode=itxc20