To investigate the prevalence of and factors associated with dental fluorosis in children living in areas of high caries risk in Stockholm and who had participated in a prospective, parallel, cluster-randomized, controlled caries prevention trial between ages 1 and 3?years.
Materials and Methods
The study group comprised a random sample of the children who had completed the 2-year prevention trial (n?=?2536) in 2011–2014. All children were instructed to use fluoride toothpaste; the test group received fluoride varnish applications twice a year. Dental fluorosis prevalences in the reference (n?=?220) and the test (n?=?234) groups were compared. Presence of fluorosis was determined using the Thylsturp & Fejerskov (TF) index on photos of the permanent maxillary incisors.
No significant difference in dental fluorosis was observed between the two groups. Nearly one-third (29.7%) of the children in the study cohort exhibited dental fluorosis (TF index ? 1). Associations with use of fluoride toothpaste at age 1?year and with socioeconomic status factors were found.
Biannual applications of fluoride varnish in toddlers was not associated with dental fluorosis, which when found was rarely of aesthetic concern. Parental education in tooth-brushing routines is recommended.
*Original full-text article online at: https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/full/10.1080/00016357.2022.2158128
Topical fluoride as a cause of dental fluorosis in children.
Background For many years, topical use of fluorides has gained greater popularity than systemic use of fluorides. A possible adverse effect associated with the use of topical fluoride is the development of dental fluorosis due to the ingestion of excessive fluoride by young children with developing teeth. Objectives To describe the relationship between the
[In vivo and in vitro experimental study on the effect of fluoride-induced autophagy in rat HAT-7 cell line].
PURPOSE: To study the effect of fluoride on autophagy in rat ameloblasts both in vitro and in vivo. METHODS: Logarithmic-phase HAT-7 cells were cultured in different concentrations of fluoride for 48h. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) was used to detect autophagosomes. Western blot and RT-qPCR were carried out to examine the expression
Resin infiltration technique and fluoride varnish on white spot lesions in children: Preliminary findings of a randomized clinical trial.
AIM: To clinically assess the efficacy of resin infiltration versus fluoride varnish for arresting white spot lesions (WSLs) on permanent teeth in children. Subjects and Methods: Among the children referred to the our University, Faculty of Dentistry, Department of Pediatric Dentistry, 23 aged between 8-14 with 81 anterior WSLs were included
Comparison of recommended and actual mean intakes of fluoride by Canadians
The findings of two separate 1993 reports, one of the actual intake of fluoride by Canadians and the other on their recommended fluoride intake, are summarized and compared. Recent increases in very mild and mild dental fluorosis suggest that the gap between current fluoride intake and recommended intake is narrowing. The daily swallowing of fluoride dentifrice makes
Timing of fluoride intake and dental fluorosis on late-erupting permanent teeth
OBJECTIVE: Very few studies have examined the relationship between timing of fluoride intake and development of dental fluorosis on late-erupting permanent teeth using period-specific fluoride intake information. This study examined this relationship using longitudinal fluoride intake information from the Iowa Fluoride Study. METHODS: Participants' fluoride exposure and intake (birth to 10
Related Studies :
Moderate/Severe Dental Fluorosis
In its "moderate" and severe forms, fluoride causes a marked increase in the porosity of the enamel. After eruption into mouth, the porous enamel of moderate to severe fluorosis readily takes up stain, creating permanent brown and black discolorations of the teeth. In addition to extensive staining, teeth with moderate to severe fluorosis are more prone to attrition and wear - leading to pitting, chipping, and decay.
Dental Fluorosis in the U.S. 1950-2004
Before the widespread use of fluoride in dentistry, dental fluorosis was rarely found in western countries. Today, with virtually every toothpaste now containing fluoride, and most U.S. water supplies containing fluoride chemicals, dental fluorosis rates have reached unprecedented levels. In the 1950s, it was estimated that only 10% of children in
Racial Disparities in Dental Fluorosis
In 2005, the Centers for Disease Control published the results of a national survey of dental fluorosis conducted between 1999 and 2002. According to the CDC, black children in the United States have significantly higher rates of dental fluorosis than either white or Hispanic children. This was not the first time that black children were found to suffer higher rates of dental fluorosis. At least five other studies -- dating as far back as the 1960s -- have found black children in the United States are disproportionately impacted by dental fluorosis.
Mechanisms by Which Fluoride Causes Dental Fluorosis Remain Unknown
When it comes to how fluoride impacts human health, no tissue in the body has been studied more than the teeth. Yet, despite over 50 years of research, the mechanism by which fluoride causes dental fluorosis (a hypo-mineralization of the enamel that results in significant staining of the teeth) is not
Diagnostic Criteria for Dental Fluorosis: The TSIF ("Total Surface Index of Fluorosis")
The traditional criteria (the "Dean Index") for diagnosing dental fluorosis was developed in the first half of the 20th century by H. Trendley Dean. While the Dean Index is still widely used in surveys of fluorosis -- including the CDC's national surveys of fluorosis in the United States -- dental
Related FAN Content :