- Arsenic and fluoride change mitochondrial ultrastructure in myocardium.
- Arsenic and fluoride induce myocardial oxidative stress and autophagy.
- There is interactive effect of arsenic and fluoride on myocardial injury.
Co-contamination of arsenic and fluoride is widely distributed in groundwater. However, little is known about the interactively influence of arsenic and fluoride, especially the combined mechanism in cardiotoxicity. Cellular and animal models exposure to arsenic and fluoride were established to assess the oxidative stress and autophagy mechanism of cardiotoxic damage using the factorial design, a widely used statistical method for assessing two factor interventions. In vivo, combined exposure to high arsenic (50 mg/L) and high fluoride (100 mg/L) induced myocardial injury. The damage is accompanied by accumulation of myocardial enzyme, mitochondrial disorder, and excessive oxidative stress. Further experiment identified that arsenic and fluoride induced the accumulation of autophagosome and increased expression level of autophagy related genes during the cardiotoxicity process. These findings were further demonstrated through the in vitro model of arsenic and fluoride-treated the H9c2 cells. Additionally, combined of arsenic-fluoride exposure possesses the interactively influence on oxidative stress and autophagy, contributing to the myocardial cell toxicity. In conclusion, our data suggest that oxidative stress and autophagy are involved in the process of cardiotoxic injury, and that these indicators showed interaction effect in response to the combined exposure of arsenic and fluoride.
*Original full-text article online at: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0147651323001513