Fluoride Action Network


The renin-angiotensin system (RAS) is an important fluid regulation system in the body, and excessive activation of the circulatory or local RAS can increase blood pressure (BP). Excess fluoride can increase BP, although the underlying mechanism related to activation of the RAS remains unclear. Thus, the aim of this study was to elucidate the role of the RAS in fluoride-induced hypertension. Markers of the circulating and local RASs related to pathological changes to the kidneys, myocardium, and aorta were measured. Fluoride reduced serum levels of renin, angiotensin II (Ang II), and angiotensin (1?7) [Ang (1?7)], and dysregulated plasma levels of aldosterone and potassium levels. Excess fluoride can damage the kidneys, myocardium, and aorta, overactivate the renal angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE)-Ang II-angiotensin type 1 receptor axis, and inhibit activation of the ACE2-Ang (1?7)-Mas axis, leading to dysregulation of alpha epithelial sodium channels and significantly increased expression of Ang II in the myocardium and aorta. Hence, excess fluoride can cause low-renin hypertension via an imbalance between the circulatory and local RASs.

*Original full-text article online at: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/abs/pii/S0378427423001704