Chronic fluoride toxicosis caused lameness, dental lesions and illthrift in an extensive beef cattle herd in northern Australia. Up to 15% of the herd was lame and the disease forced the culling of large numbers of cows. The source of fluoride was fertiliser-grade monoammonium and diammonium phosphate fed as part of a mineral supplement. Large quantities of mineral supplement were provided to the cattle because lameness was attributed to phosphorus deficiency, which is endemic in the area. Most lameness developed in the late dry season in the post-lactation phase. Severe lameness was caused by fractured pedal bones.