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Global analysis and prediction of fluoride in groundwater.
Table 1. Top 20 countries in population potentially affected by fluoride concentrations in groundwater greater than 1.5mg/L. Open in a separate window Rank Country Population at risk (range) Rank Country Population at risk (range) (million) (million) 1 India 49 (26–89) 11 Malawi 4.0 (3.5–4.8) 2 China 22 (1–50) 12 Zambia 3.4 (1.4–3.6) 3 Dem. Rep. […]
Skeletal Fluorosis in India & China
In India and China, scientists have repeatedly found that skeletal fluorosis occurs in populations drinking water with just 0.7 to 1.5 ppm fluoride. Although nutritional deficiencies and hot climates make populations in India and China more susceptible to fluoride toxicity than is generally the case in western countries, this fact does not remove the relevance of the Indian and Chinese experience to the situation in fluoridating countries. This is because (a) nutritional deficiencies also exist in the western world, particularly in low-income communities, and (b) some individuals, including those with kidney disease, can be just as — if not more — susceptible to fluoride toxicity.