Tag: Skeletal Fluorosis
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Skeletal Changes in Industrial and Endemic Fluorosis
Fluorotic changes in bones and joints were evaluated in 105 aluminum workers and 20 residents of an endemic fluorosis region in India.
A highly significant relationship of exposure to fluoride was established with the frequency of back and neck surgery, fractures, symptoms of musculoskeletal disease and past history of diseases of bones and joints in the absence of the typical findings of skeletal fluorosis. Monitoring exposed workers for the early manifestations of “musculoskeletal fluorosis” is recommended prior to the development of destructive and degenerative changes of the skeleton.
Harmful Fluoride Levels Found in Instant Iced Tea
Instant iced tea mixes may contain potentially harmful levels of fluoride, according to a new study. The results indicate constantly quenching your thirst with instant iced teas may increase your risk of a rare, but potentially dangerous bone disorder caused by getting too much fluoride in your system.
Fluoride & Osteopetrosis
One of the most common radiological findings in skeletal fluorosis is osteosclerosis – a hardening of bones with a blurring of the trabecular structure. In advanced cases, the osteosclerotic form of fluorosis may closely resemble the appearance of osteopetrosis, a “marble bone” disease in which the bones are dense, but fragile and prone to fracture.
Skeletal Fluorosis in India & its Relevance to the West
While the elevated consumption of water in warm climates such as India along with the increased incidence of malnutrition make direct comparisons of the Indian experience to the “West” difficult, it is striking to observe how narrow the margin is between the doses which cause advanced fluorosis in India and the doses that people are now regularly receiving in fluoridated communities.
Mayo Clinic: Fluoridation & Bone Disease in Renal Patients
The available evidence suggests that some patients wtih long-term renal failure are being affected by drinking water with as little as 2 ppm fluoride. The finding of adverse effects in patients drinking water with 2 ppm of fluoride suggests that a few similar cases may be found in patients imbibing 1 ppm, especially if large volumes are consumed, or in heavy tea drinkers. The finding of adverse effects in patients drinking water with 2 ppm of fluoride suggests that a few similar cases may be found in patients imbibing 1 ppm, especially if large volumes are consumed, or in heavy tea drinkers and if fluoride is indeed the cause. It would seem prudent, therefore, to monitor the fluoride intake of patients with renal failure living in high fluoride areas.
Factors which increase the risk for skeletal fluorosis
The risk for developing skeletal fluorosis, and the course the disease will take, is not solely dependent on the dose of fluoride ingested. Indeed, people exposed to similar doses of fluoride may experience markedly different effects. While the wide range in individual response to fluoride is not yet fully understood, the following are some of the factors that are believed to play a role.
Skeletal Fluorosis & Individual Variability
One of the common fallacies in the research on skeletal fluorosis is the notion that there is a uniform level of fluoride that is safe for everyone in the population. These “safety thresholds” have been expressed in terms of (a) bone fluoride content, (b) daily dose, (c) water fluoride level, (d) urinary fluoride level, and (e) blood fluoride level. The central fallacy with each of these alleged safety thresholds, however, is that they ignore the wide range of individual susceptibility in how people respond to toxic substances, including fluoride.
Estimated “Threshold” Doses for Skeletal Fluorosis
For over 40 years health authorities stated that in order to develop crippling skeletal fluorosis, one would need to ingest between 20 and 80 mg of fluoride per day for at least 10 or 20 years. This belief, however, which played an instrumental role in shaping current fluoride policies, is now acknowledged by the National Academy of Sciences (NAS) and other US health authorities to be incorrect.
Skeletal Fluorosis in India & China
In India and China, scientists have repeatedly found that skeletal fluorosis occurs in populations drinking water with just 0.7 to 1.5 ppm fluoride. Although nutritional deficiencies and hot climates make populations in India and China more susceptible to fluoride toxicity than is generally the case in western countries, this fact does not remove the relevance of the Indian and Chinese experience to the situation in fluoridating countries. This is because (a) nutritional deficiencies also exist in the western world, particularly in low-income communities, and (b) some individuals, including those with kidney disease, can be just as — if not more — susceptible to fluoride toxicity.