Toxicol Sci. 2005 May 11; [Epub
ahead of print]
RAPID UPTAKE, METABOLISM AND ELIMINATION
OF INHALED SULFURYL FLUORIDE FUMIGANT BY RATS.
Mendrala AL, Markham DA, Eisenbrandt
Toxicology & Environmental Research and Consulting, 1803
Building, The Dow Chemical Company,
Midland, Michigan 48674.
Sulfuryl fluoride (SO2F2) is a structural fumigant gas to control
drywood termites and wood-boring beetles. The pharmacokinetics
and metabolism of inhaled SO2F2 were evaluated in male Fischer
344 rats exposed to 30 or 300 ppm (35)S-labeled SO2F2 for 4
h. Blood, urine and feces were collected during and after the
exposures and analyzed for radioactivity, (35)S-labeled fluorosulfate
and sulfate, and fluoride (urine and feces only). Selected tissues
were collected 7 days post-exposure and analyzed for radioactivity.
During and after unlabeled SO2F2 exposures, blood, brain and
kidney were collected and analyzed for fluoride ion. SO2F2 was
rapidly absorbed, achieving maximum concentrations of radioactivity
in both plasma and red blood cells (RBC)
near the end of the 4 h exposure period. Radioactivity was rapidly
excreted, mostly via the urine. Seven days post-exposure, small
amounts of radioactivity were distributed among several tissues,
with the highest concentration detected in respiratory
tissues. Radioactivity associated with the RBC
remained elevated 7 days post-exposure and highly perfused tissues
had higher levels of radioactivity than other non-respiratory
tissues. Radioactivity cleared from plasma and RBC with
initial half-lives of 2.5 h after 30 ppm and 1-2.5 h after 300
ppm exposures. The terminal half-life
of radioactivity was 2.5-fold longer in RBC than plasma.
Based on the radiochemical profiles, there was no evidence of
parent (35)SO2F2 in blood. Identification of fluorosulfate and
sulfate in blood and urine suggests that
SO2F2 is hydrolyzed to fluorosulfate, with release of fluoride,
followed by further hydrolysis to sulfate and release of the
PMID: 15888664 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Annu Rev Entomol
to methyl bromide treatments for stored-product and quarantine
Fields PG, White ND.
Cereal Research Centre, Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada, Winnipeg,
Manitoba, R3T 2M9; Canada. email@example.com
Methyl bromide is used to control insects as a space fumigant
in flour and feed mills and ship holds, as a product fumigant
for some fruit and cereals, and for general quarantine purposes.
Methyl bromide acts rapidly, controlling insects in less than
48 h in space fumigations, and it has a wide spectrum of activity,
controlling not only insects but also nematodes and plant-pathogenic
microbes. This chemical will be banned in 2005 in developed
countries, except for exceptional quarantine purposes, because
it depletes ozone in the atmosphere. Many alternatives have
been tested as replacements for methyl bromide, from physical
control methods such as heat, cold, and sanitation to fumigant
replacements such as phosphine, sulfuryl
fluoride, and carbonyl sulfide, among others. Individual
situations will require their own type of pest control techniques,
but the most promising include integrated pest management tactics
and combinations of treatments such as phosphine, carbon dioxide,
[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
2002. Federal Register. (Volume 67, Number 59)] [Notices]
Issues 3-Year Experimental Use Permit for "ProFume Gas Fumigant"
on walnuts and raisins.
February 19, 2002.
Fluoride Action Network Pesticide Project.
ALERT and UPDATE on Sulfuryl fluoride.
EPA's latest effort
to set tolerances for inorganic Fluoride residues "in and on"
a large number of raw and processed food products.
February 15, 2002.
Federal Register (Volume 67, Number 32)] [Notices] [Page 7156-7159]
pesticide petition to establish Fluoride and Sulfuryl fluoride
tolerances for a large number of raw and processed foods.
or On Raw Commodity:
On the processed products
field, oil *
field, refined oil
milled by products
This is most likely an error, as levels are given for Corn,
field, refined oil
September 5, 2001.
Federal Register. (Volume 66, Number 172)] [Proposed Rules]
proposed pesticide temporary tolerances for residues of Sulfuryl
fluoride resulting from the post harvest treatment with sulfuryl
first time use of the fumigant Sulfuryl fluoride on food:
or on raisins at 30 ppm
date: April 1, 2006
or on walnuts at 12 ppm
date: April 1, 2006
or on raisins at 0.004 ppm
date: April 1, 2006
or on walnuts at 2.0 ppm
date: April 1, 2006
States Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service
of Sulfuryl fluoride (Vikane) to fruit flies in laboratory tests.
Summary: Exotic quarantine pests like fruit flies represent
one of the greatest threats to California agriculture if populations
of these pests were to become established in the state. Quarantine
security against these pests in a variety of agricultural commodities
is presently ensured by 2 to 4 hr fumigation treatments using
methyl bromide. Because methyl bromide production is being phased
out, we tested the effectiveness of sulfuryl fluoride as an
alternative treatment against the Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis
capitata Wiedemann, the Oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis,
and the Melon fly, B. cucurbitae. Results of our laboratory
tests showed that sulfuryl fluoride was very toxic to larval
stages of each of the 3 species of fruit fly in 4 hr fumigations.
Conversely, eggs of these fruit flies were relatively tolerant
to sulfuryl fluoride in the short, 4-hr exposure periods. Effective
control of the eggs would require exposures to sulfuryl fluoride
of 24 to 48 hrs. These results indicate
that sulfuryl fluoride is not an effective replacement of methyl
bromide as a quarantine fumigant for these fruit flies because
of the relative tolerance of the egg stage in short exposure
on the development of sulfuryl fluoride as an alternative to
Welker, Schneider, and Drinkall.
Fluoride: The Postharvest Fumigant of the Future?
Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service
Am J Public Health
effects associated with sulfuryl fluoride and methyl bromide
exposure among structural fumigation workers.
GM, Mueller CA, Fajen JM, Chrislip DW, Russo J, Briggle T, Fleming
LE, Suruda AJ, Steenland K
Division of Surveillance,
Hazard Evaluations and Field Studies, Centers for Disease Control
and Prevention, Cincinnati, Ohio, USA. firstname.lastname@example.org
study assessed the health effects associated with occupational
exposure to methyl bromide and sulfuryl fluoride among structural
METHODS: A cross-sectional study of 123 structural fumigation
workers and 120 referents in south Florida was conducted. Nerve
conduction, vibration, neurobehavioral, visual, olfactory, and
renal function testing was included.
RESULTS: The median lifetime duration of methyl bromide and
sulfuryl fluoride exposure among workers was 1.20 years and
2.85 years, respectively. Sulfuryl fluoride exposure over the
year preceding examination was associated with significantly
reduced performance on the Pattern Memory Test and on olfactory
testing. In addition, fumigation workers had significantly reduced
performance on the Santa Ana Dexterity Test of the dominant
hand and a nonsignificantly higher prevalence of carpal tunnel
syndrome than did the referents.
CONCLUSIONS: Occupational sulfuryl fluoride exposures may be
associated with subclinical effects on the central nervous system,
including effects on olfactory and some cognitive functions.
However, no widespread pattern of cognitive deficits was observed.
The peripheral nerve effects were likely caused by ergonomic
stresses experienced by the fumigation workers.
November 17, 1998
of Toxicology Data for Sulfuryl fluoride
Environmental Protection Agency, Department of Pesticide Regulation,
Medical Toxicology Branch
Am J Ind Med 1997
between company-recorded and self-reported estimates of duration
and frequency of occupational fumigant exposure.
GM, Mueller CA, O'Neill VL, Fajen JM, Briggle T, Fleming LE
Division of Surveillance,
Hazard Evaluations and Field Studies,
National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health,
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Cincinnati, OH 45226,
often rely on self-reported work history information collected
with questionnaires. However, little is known about the agreement
between self-reported estimates of exposure and records kept
by companies. As part of a cross-sectional medical study of
structural fumigation workers, self-reported work history information
was collected on both duration and frequency of exposure using
an interviewer-administered questionnaire. All company records
available on these workers were also collected. Only 15 of 81
structural fumigation companies identified by study participants
as current or past structural fumigation employers had records
suitable for comparison. These 15 companies employed 32 of the
workers who participated in the cross-sectional medical study.
The exposure information provided by the 32 workers was compared
to information obtained from company records. By examining the
agreement between these two data sources, potential limitations
were identified in both the self-reported and company-recorded
exposure data. By recognizing these limitations in the exposure
data, we identified the most appropriate exposure measures to
be used in subsequent data analyses. This exercise also demonstrated
the difficulties in undertaking these exposure comparisons in
an industry consisting of many small, independent companies.
Similar difficulties with assessing exposures may be experienced
by investigators studying other service industries consisting
of many small, independent companies (e.g., dry cleaning, auto
by Caroline Cox
Abstract from Journal of Pesticide Reform 17
(2) 17-20 1997
The fumigant sulfuryl fluoride is widely
used to kill termites and other unwanted insects in
buildings, ships, railroad cars, and wood products.
Sulfuryl fluoride is "an extremely hazardous gas".
Typical symptoms of exposure include nose, eye, and
throat irritation, weakness, nausea, difficult or painful
breathing, seizures, and kidney injury. With repeated
exposure or higher concentrations, breathing failure
occurs. There is no known antidote for sulfuryl fluoride
poisoning. Sulfuryl fluoride is also toxic to the nervous
system. Neurological symptoms include muscle aching
and fatigue, co-ordination problems, depression, slurred
speech, dizziness, and stumbling, weaving, and staggering
when walking. Sulfuryl fluoride has adversely affected
reproduction in laboratory animals. When rats inhale
sulfuryl fluoride for a period spanning two generations,
the weight of the offspring was reduced in both the
first and second generation. Sulfuryl fluoride was not
tested for its ability to cause cancer as part of the
registration process. All tests for effects on nontarget
animals and plants, as well as all environmental fate
tests were waived during the registration process. It
is, however, clearly toxic to nontarget animals and
plants. Regulatory agencies and the courts have found
repeated violations of fumigation safety have occurred
during sulfuryl fluoride treatments. According to one
judge, the practices of a major extermination company
was "nothing short of scary".
Reprints from: Northwest
Coalition for Alternatives to Pesticides, PO Box 1393,
Eugene, Oregon 97440, USA.
November 30, 1994.
fluoride added to the list of toxic chemicals subject to reporting
under section 313 of the Emergency Planning and Community Right-to-Know
Act of 1986 (EPCRA) and Section 6607 of the Pollution Prevention
Act of 1990 (PPA). Final Rule.
Noticias de Seguridad
Mar. 1994, Vol.56, No.3. 3p. Insert.
safety sheet published by the Consejo Interamericano de Seguridad,
33 Park Place, Englewood, NJ 07631, USA. Health hazards: irritation
of the eyes and respiratory tract;
neurotoxic effects (central nervous system).
fluoride: two generation reproduction study in Sprague-Dawley
WJ, Liberacki AB, Kirk HD, Bradley GJ, Crissman JW
(SF) is a gas fumigant used to control structural pests such
as drywood termites. This study was conducted to assess the
potential reproductive and neonatal toxicity of SF following
inhalation exposure in rats. Groups of 30 male and 30 female
Sprague-Dawley rats were exposed to 0,
5, 20 or 150 ppm SF via inhalation, for 6 hours/day, for two
generations. Parental effects at 150 ppm SF included decreased
body weight, dental fluorosis, an increased incidence of aggregates
of alveolar macrophages in the lungs and an increased incidence
of very slight to slight, bilaterally symmetrical, vacuolation
of the caudate putamen myelinated fiber tracts in the brain.
At 20 ppm SF, parental effects were limited
to an increased incidence of aggregates of alveolar macrophages.
No treatment-related effects on the reproductive or fertility
indices, gross or histopathology of the reproductive organs,
or pup survival were observed at any exposure level. The maternal
toxicity observed at 150 ppm SF was, however, accompanied by
decreased pup weights in both the F1 and
F2 litters. The effect on pup weight in the high exposure
group was less severe in the F2 litters and may have been secondary
to decreased maternal growth. In conclusion,
the parental no-observed-effect level (NOEL) was 5 ppm for males
and females, the NOEL for neonatal growth was 20 ppm, and
the NOEL for reproductive toxicity and fertility was 150 ppm,
the highest exposure level tested.
fluoride. Pesticide Information Profile from EXTOXNET.
From Dart Special at Toxnet
Chemically Induced Birth Defects 1993;2:675-721
International Research and Development Corporation, Mattawan,
Medical Subject Headings (MeSH):
Substance (CAS Registry Number): [Too
many to list]
Sodium fluoroacetate (62-74-8)
[Note: the following organofluorines
Gliftor (8065-71-2) - [Synonym: 1-Chloro-3-fluoro-2-propanol
mixt. with 1,3-difluoro-2-propanol]
N-Methyl-N- 1-naphthyl fluoroacetamide [Nissol] (5903-13-9)
Sarin [Synonym: (+-)-Isopropyl methylphosphonofluoridate] (107-44-8)
hexafluorosilicate [also known as Sodium fluorosilicate]
Soman [Synonym: 1,2,2-Trimethylpropyl methylphosphonofluoridate]
FACTS SULFURYL FLUORIDE
EPA. Office of Prevention, Pesticides And Toxic Substances
Contam Toxicol 1992 Jun;48(6):821-7
of methyl bromide and sulfuryl fluoride in manufacturer-packaged
household foods following fumigation.
RH, Bodalbhai L, Su NY
Research and Education Center, University of Florida, Ft. Lauderdale
Journal of Economic Entomology. in press.
efficacy of sulfuryl fluoride against four beetle pests of museums
(Coleoptera: Dermestidae, Anobiidae).
Contam Toxicol 1989 Dec;43(6):899-903
residues in frozen foods fumigated with sulfuryl fluoride.
RH, Hsu RC, Su NY
Research and Education Center, University of Florida.
FOOD CHEM; 37 (1). 1989. 203-206.
and sulfate residues in foods fumigated with sulfuryl fluoride.
RH, HSU R-C, OSBRINK W LA, SU N-Y
VEGETABLE OIL FOOD RESIDUE FOOD INDUSTRY
Appl Toxicol 1989 Jul;13(1):79-86
of inhalation exposure to sulfuryl fluoride on fetal development
in rats and rabbits.
TR Jr, Calhoun LL, Kociba RJ, Greene JA
and Environmental Toxicology Research Laboratory, Dow
Midland, Michigan 48674.
fluoride is a fumigant insecticide used for soils and permanent
structures. Pregnant Fischer 344 rats and New Zealand White
rabbits were exposed to 0, 25, 75, or 225 ppm of sulfuryl fluoride
vapor via inhalation for 6 hr/day on Days 6-15 and 6-18 of gestation,
respectively. Among rats, maternal water consumption was increased
in the 225 ppm exposure group, but there were no indications
of embryotoxicity, fetotoxicity, or teratogenicity in any of
the exposed groups. Among rabbits, maternal weight loss during
the exposure period (Days 6-18) was observed in the 225 ppm
group. Decreased fetal body weights, considered secondary to
maternal weight loss, were also observed at 225 ppm. However,
no evidence of embryotoxicity or teratogenicity was observed
among rabbits in any exposure group. Thus, inhalation exposure
to sulfuryl fluoride was not teratogenic in either rats or rabbits
exposed to levels of up to 225 ppm, and fetotoxic effects (reduced
body weights) were observed among fetal rabbits only at an exposure
level that produced maternal weight loss.
Appl Toxicol 1989 Apr;12(3):540-57
toxicity of sulfuryl fluoride in rats and rabbits.
DL, Nitschke KD
and Environmental Toxicology Research Laboratory, Dow
toxicity of the structural fumigant sulfuryl fluoride (SO2F2)
was evaluated in rats and rabbits. Exposures for a preliminary
2-week study were 6 hr/day, 5 days/week, to 0, 100, 300, or
600 ppm SO2F2. Nine of ten rats at 600 ppm died or were moribund
between the second and sixth exposures. Extensive
kidney lesions were present in all rats exposed to 600 ppm,
whereas only minimal renal changes were noted in rats at 300
ppm. Upper and lower respiratory tissues were inflamed
in the single rat that survived the 2-week exposure to 600 ppm.
Rabbits exposed to 600 ppm SO2F2 were hyperactive and one animal
had a convulsion. Exposure to 300 or 600 ppm for 2 weeks resulted
in vacuolation and/or malacia in the cerebrum
of all rabbits and most of these rabbits also had moderate
inflammation of nasal tissues; a few rabbits at 600 ppm had
inflammation of the trachea or bronchi. A subsequent 13-week
study evaluated rats and rabbits exposed to 0, 30, 100, or 300
ppm SO2F2 (337 ppm TWA for rabbits). Rabbits initially were
exposed to a high concentration of 600 ppm; however, convulsions
were noted in two animals after nine exposures and the concentration
subsequently was reduced to 300 ppm. Vacuolation
and/or malacia were observed in the cerebrum of all rabbits
at the highest concentration; one rabbit exposed to 100 ppm
also had cerebral vacuolation. Rabbits at the highest
concentration, as well as one rabbit exposed to 100 ppm, had
inflammation of the nasal tissues. Rats exposed to 300 ppm SO2F2
for 13 weeks had mottled incisor teeth, minimal renal effects,
pulmonary histiocytosis, inflammation of nasal tissues, and
cerebral vacuolation. Also, rats
exposed to 100 ppm SO2F2 for 13 weeks had mottled teeth. Fluoride
toxicity was suggested by mottled teeth in rats as well as elevation
of serum fluoride levels in rats and rabbits exposed to SO2F2
for 13 weeks. Although repeated exposure
of rats and rabbits to 100-600 ppm SO2F2 resulted in toxicity
of the kidneys (rats only), brain, and respiratory system,
no effects were detected in animals exposed to 30 ppm for 13
57 (2). 1989. 78.
CONTROL WAREHOUSE INSECTICIDE VIKANE
control by inert gases for museum archives and libraries.
N., and F.Preusser.
Teratol 1988 Mar-Apr;10(2):127-33
neurotoxicity in rats of the structural fumigant, sulfuryl fluoride.
JL, Albee RR, Eisenbrandt DL, Chang LW
and Environmental Sciences, Dow
Midland, MI 48674.
exposure of male and female Fischer 344 rats to sulfuryl fluoride
[Vikane (Dow Chemical Company) gas fumigant] at 300 ppm for
6 hr/day, 5 days week, for 13 weeks caused diminished weight
gain, dental fluorosis, a slight decrease in grooming, decreased
flicker fusion threshold, slowing of flash, auditory and somatosensory
evoked potentials, mild nasal and pulmonary inflammation, mild
kidney effects, and mild vacuolation in
the brain. Auditory brainstem responses (ABRs) and brain
histology were evaluated two months postexposure in 2 male and
2 female rats. Both the ABRs and brain histology were within
normal limits at this time, indicating that these treatment
effects were, to at least a great extent, reversible. Exposure
to 100 ppm resulted in dental fluorosis and very minor slowing
of some evoked responses; all other measures, including brain
histology, were normal. No treatment effects were noted at 30
1988, C19. New York Times.
control company fined $500,000 in death of couple.
A guide to pest control in museums.
D.C.: Foundation of the American Institute for Conservation
of Historic and Artistic Works and the Association of Systematics
L. and R.Schrock, eds.
FOOD CHEM; 36 (4). 1988. 853-855.
FLUORIDE RESIDUES OF FUMIGATED FOODS PROTECTED BY POLYETHYLENE
W LA, SCHEFFRAHN RH, HSU R-C, SU N-Y
BIOSIS COPYRIGHT: BIOL ABS. RRM INSECTICIDE FOOD PROCESSING
INDUSTRY FOOD RESIDUE VEGETABLE OIL
Unpublished results from tests using Vikane as a sterilant
Contam Toxicol 1987 Nov;39(5):769-75
of residual sulfuryl fluoride from structural and household
commodities by headspace analysis using gas chromatography.
RH, Osbrink WL, Hsu RC, Su NY
Research and Education Center, University of Florida 33314.
Oct 16;258(15):2041, 2044
from the MMWR. Fatalities resulting from sulfuryl fluoride exposure
after home fumigation--Virginia.
18, 1987. Mortality & Morbidity
Weekly Report. 36(36);602-4,609-11.
Notes and Reports Fatalities Resulting From Sulfuryl Fluoride
Exposure After Home Fumigation -- Virginia
Appl Toxicol 1986 Nov;7(4):664-70
and treatment of rats exposed to a lethal dose of sulfuryl fluoride.
KD, Albee RR, Mattsson JL, Miller RR
to 4000 ppm sulfuryl fluoride (VIKANE gas fumigant, SO2F2) were
incapacitated within 45 min and died within several hours after
exposure. Exposure to higher concentrations resulted in a shorter
time to incapacitation and death occurred within minutes. Treatment
with calcium gluconate before exposure to 4000 ppm SO2F2 for
45 min resulted in 80% survival. However, calcium gluconate
did not alleviate SO2F2-induced convulsions. Administration
of phenobarbital before or after exposure to 4000 ppm SO2F2
for 45 min effectively reduced the frequency and severity of
convulsions and resulted in survival of all animals. Exposure
of rats to 10,000 ppm SO2F2 for 15 min followed by treatment
with phenobarbital reduced the frequency of convulsions and
delayed death, but did not prevent death. Diazepam was less
effective than phenobarbital while diphenylhydantoin had no
beneficial effect and, in fact, made the convulsions more severe
and longer in duration. The results of this study indicate that
phenobarbital was effective in ameliorating the acute toxic
effects of an overexposure to SO2F2 in rats.
Sci 1986 Jul;31(3):1154-8
by exposure to sulfuryl fluoride.
fumigant, sulfuryl fluoride, was used as an instrument of self
destruction in at least two of the three fatal exposures detailed
in this report. The autopsy findings, while nonspecific, have
a confirmatory value. Toxicologic analysis should include a
plasma and a urine fluoride level, since the toxic effects of
exposure are probably related to this ion. Concentrations of
fluoride in our cases were: 50.42 mg/L (Case 1) and 20 mg/L
(Case 3). However, the values must be interpreted in light of
all known information as a result of the paucity of reported
cases of fatal sulfuryl fluoride exposures. The cases described
provide a model for the investigation of tent fumigation deaths.
Proper investigation of fumigant deaths requires knowledge of
the insecticide, the fumigation procedure, and the implementation
of warning devices. Guidelines are offered along with a procedural
checklist for the investigation of tent fumigation deaths.
evaluation of soil and structural fumigators using methyl bromide
and sulfuryl fluoride.
WK, Moody L, Burg J, Brightwell WS, Taylor BJ, Russo JM, Dickerson
N, Setzer JV, Johnson BL, Hicks K
functions affected by methyl bromide exposure were evaluated
in California structural and soil fumigators using methyl bromide
and sulfuryl fluoride. Sampling data revealed that structural
fumigators are exposed for up to 1.5 hrs/day to 0-2.2 ppm methyl
bromide and/or 10-200 ppm sulfuryl fluoride, and soil fumigators
can be exposed to 2.3 ppm methyl bromide over an 8-hr day. Subjects
were grouped for statistical analysis on the basis of exposure
history: Those exposed primarily (80% or more of the work period
with exposure potential) to methyl bromide (N = 32), primarily
to sulfuryl fluoride (24), or to a combination of methyl bromide
and sulfuryl fluoride (40-60% of each) for a minimum of one
year (18), and those not exposed to high concentrations of any
chemicals (29 Referents). Fumigators using methyl bromide reported
a significantly higher prevalence of 18 symptoms consistent
with methyl bromide toxicity than did Referents. Methyl bromide
fumigators did not perform as well as Referents on 23 of 27
behavioral tests (chosen to reflect methyl bromide effects),
and were significantly lower on one test of finger sensitivity
and one of cognitive performance. These consistent differences
suggest that even the low levels of methyl bromide found in
fumigation today may produce slight neurotoxic effects. found
in fumigation today may produce slight neurotoxic effects. The
greater number of symptoms and reduced performance on all cognitive
tests in sulfuryl fluoride fumigators compared to the Reference
Group plus the absence of published research on this compound
suggest that the data base for sulfuryl fluoride is inadequate.
Pesticide Fact Sheet Number 51: Sulfuryl Fluoride.
Protection Agency, Washington, DC. Office of Pesticide Programs.
contains up-to-date chemical information, including a summary
of the Agency's regulatory position and rationale, on a specific
pesticide or group of pesticides. A Fact Sheet is issued after
one of the following actions has occurred.
(1) Issuance or reissuance of a registration standard,
(2) Issuance of each special review document,
(3) Registration of a significantly changed use pattern,
(4) Registration of a new chemical, or
(5) An immediate need for information to resolve controversial
issues relating to a specific chemical or use pattern.
FOURTH MEETING OF THE BEHAVIORAL TOXICOLOGY SOCIETY, WILMINGTON,
DEL., USA, JUNE 6-7, 1985. NEUROBEHAV TOXICOL TERATOL; 7 (5).
EVALUATION OF SOIL AND STRUCTURAL FUMIGATORS USING METHYL BROMIDE
AND SULFURYL FLUORIDE
WK, MOODY L, BURG J, BRIGHTWELL WS, TAYLOR BJ, RUSSO JM, DICKERSON
N, SETZER JV, JOHNSON BL, HICKS K
Family and Community Health 7(3):76–82.
fumigants in the grain handling industry.
BAUR, F. J. (ED.). INSECT MANAGEMENT FOR FOOD
STORAGE AND PROCESSING. XV+384P. AMERICAN ASSOCIATION OF CEREAL
CHEMISTS: ST. PAUL, MINN., USA. ILLUS. ISBN 0-913250-38-4.;
0 (0). 162-170.
R, HAREIN PK
PHOSPHINE METHYL BROMIDE HYDROGEN CYANIDE SULFURYL
FLUORIDE INSECTICIDE SAFETY
Dow Chemical Co.
J Am Acad Dermatol, Oct;5(4):428-32
AR, Moy R, Barr AR, Price Z
man presented with a 5-year history of recurrent urticarial
and papulovesicular lesions. Careful history suggested a close
examination of his environment. The woolen rug in his bedroom
was infested with larvae of a carpet beetle. The insect was
identified as Anthrenus verbasci. Fumigation of the house with
sulfuryl fluoride (Vikane) resulted in complete clinical recovery.
Intradermal injection of the antigenic extract from the larvae
showed a wheal and erythema on the patient's skin, and not on
normal controls. This suggests that the patient had immediate-type
hypersensitivity to some of the antigens extracted from larvae.
Electron microscopic pictures of the insect are presented.
7287958, UI: 82031392
Industrial Vegetation and Pest Management 13(1):12–15.
gas helps save the Taj Mahal of North America.
United States Patent No. 4,102,987, July 25, 1978.
for preparing sulfuryl-fluoride and chlorofluoride products.
DM and Gustafson, DC
Scientific Papers on Japanese Antiques and Art Crafts 19–20:83–87.
of insecticidal and fungicidal agents on materials of cultural
Inorganic Chemistry 13(4):837–41.
of sulfuryl fluoride.
GH and Sudhindra M
Journal of Economic Entomology 66(6):1283–85.
for quarantine control of the adult brown dog tick: laboratory
FAO Agricultural Studies UNIPUB, Inc., New York.
of fumigation for insect control.
Journal of Economic Entomology 65(1):60–64.
of the confused and red flour beetles to anoxia produced by
helium and nitrogen at various temperatures.
Pest Control; 34(7): 13-18, 42-50
hazards and properties of commonly used space, structural and
certain other fumigants
TR, Hoyle HR, Rowe VK
is given of acute symptoms after human exposure to these commonly
used fumigants: acrylonitrile, benzene, carbon disulfide, carbon
tetrachloride, chloroform, chloropicrin, ethyl formate, ethylene
dibromide, ethylene dichloride, ethylene oxide, hydrogen cyanide,
methyl bromide, methylene chloride, naphthalene, p-dichlorobenzene,
perchloroethylene, phosphine, propylene oxide, sulfur dioxide,
1, 1, 1- trichloroethane, sulfuryl fluoride,
and various mixtures of these compounds. Maximum tolerated levels
( in ppm ) for single and repeated exposures are included. Appropriate
safety equipment and safe handling technique when using fumigants
J. Occup. Med.; 8(8): 425-426
inhaling a fumigating mixture of 1 percent chloropicrin and
Vikane ( sulfuryl fluoride ) for approximately 4 hours with
limited ventilation, a 30-year-old man
developed nausea, vomiting, abdominal cramping, pruritis, reddening
of the conjunctivae and pharyngeal and nasal mucosa, and pin-prick
anesthesia of the lateral border on one leg. Symptoms
responded to supportive treatment; he was discharged in 4 days.
Subsequent complants of scratchy throat,
flatulene and difficulty in reading are believed to have a psychogenic
origin. The short term oral LD50 ( rat ) for Vikane
(which is somewhat soluble in foodstuffs ) is reported to be
approximately 100 mg/kg. Experimentally fumigated diets ( 2
lb/1000 cubmic feet ) had no adverse effect on laboratory animals,
although bone fluoride levels were increased;
increased fumigation ( more than 10 lb/1000 cubic feet ) of
the rat food led to kidney and tooth damage.
Animal exposure to 1000 ppm for 3 hours or 15,000 ppm for 6
minutes resulted in less than 5 percent mortalities. The
principal effects in man are presumed in include respiratory
irritation and central nervous system depression, followed by
excitation and possibly vy convulsions. This is believed
to be the first reported case of this Vakane poisoning in man.
Pest Control 34(7):13
hazards and properties of commonly used space, structural and
T. R., H. R.Hoyle, and V. K.Rowe.
Health Review 18(1):16–26.
Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 12:464–67.
of sulfuryl fluoride in wheat flour.
of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 11:226–30
termite metabolism of vikane fumigant as shown by labelled pool
RW, Stewart D, Globus OA
of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 10:393–97.
fumigants, the residue potential of sulfuryl fluoride, methyl
bromide, and methane-sulfonyl fluoride in structural fumigations.
R W, and Stewart D
Journal of Chemical Physics 32(3):799–804.
properties of sulfuryl fluoride from 12K to its boiling point.
Entropy from molecular and spectroscopic data.
FJ, Petrella RV, Pace EL
Journal of Economic Entomology 53(4): 503–10.
of buildings to control the drywood termite.
HA, Asher KO
of Economic Entomology 50(1):1–6.
biological, chemical and physical properties of sulfuryl fluoride
as an insecticidal fumigant.
to Sulfuryl Fluoride Index Page