Body Weight Decrease - Adverse Effects
Fluorinated and Fluoride Pesticides
beginning with
A-E F-G H-P • Q-Z
 
 
• See Table of dramatic weight loss effects in laboratory animals exposed to fluoride and/or fluorinated pesticides.

The use of high doses increases the likelihood that potentially significant toxic effects will be identified. Findings of adverse effects in any one species do not necessarily indicate such effects might be generated in humans. From a conservative risk assessment perspective however, adverse findings in animal species are assumed to represent potential effects in humans, unless convincing evidence of species specificity is available.

-- Food and Agricultural Organization of the United Nations

Note: This is not an exhaustive list.
When time allows more information will be added.

Quinoxyfen - Fungicide - CAS No. 124495-18-7

** 040 - 181140 "XDE-795: Two-Year Dietary Chronic Toxicity/Oncogenicity Study in Fischer 344 Rats-Final Report," (Redmond, J.M., Quast, J.F., Bond, D.M., Ormand, J.R.; The Toxicology Research Laboratory, Health and Environmental Sciences The Dow Chemical Company, Midland, MI; Laboratory ID#: DR-0325-7474-007; 6/29/95). XDE-795 (5,7-dichloro-4-[4-flurophenoxy]quinoline; 97.4% pure) was fed in diet to Fischer 344 rats at 0, 5, 20 or 80 mg/kg/day for 1 2 years. XDE-795 was administered for 2 years to 50/sex/dose for chronic/oncogenicity assessment. A satellite group (15/sex/dose) was sacrificed at 12 months (10/sex/dose for interim assessment of chronic toxicity; 5/sex/dose to assess neurotoxicity). NOEL = 20 mg/kg (Females at 80 mg/kg had increased perineal soiling (satellite & main group). Both sexes had decreased bodyweights and bodyweight gains at 80 mg/kg throughout the study...
-- 034 - 181176 "XDE-795: One Year Chronic Dietary Toxicity Study in Beagle Dogs," (Cosse, P.F., Stebbins, K.E., Redmond, J.M., Ormand, J.R.; The Toxicology Research Laboratory, Health and Environmental Sciences The Dow Chemical Company, Midland, MI; Laboratory ID#: DR-
0325-7474-011; 4/21/95). XDE-795 (5,7-dichloro-4-[4-flurophenoxy]quinoline; 97.4% pure) was fed in diet to Beagle dogs (4/sex/dose) at 0, 5, 20 or 200 mg/kg/day for 1year. NOEL = 20 mg/kg (A male at 200 mg/kg was killed moribund, due to a severe weight decrease (2 kg), decreased hemoglobin and RBC counts. Both sexes had significantly decreased body weights and food consumption at 200 mg/kg. The report stated it was due to unpalatability of diet at the high dose, which persisted throughout the majority of the study...
-- ** 035 - 181177 "XDE-795: Potential Tumorigenic Effects in Prolonged Dietary Administration to CD-1 Mice," (Bellringer, M.E.; J.R.; Huntingdon Research Centre, Ltd., Cambridgeshire, UK; HRC Project ID#: DWC/657; 6/5/95). XR-795 (5,7-dichloro-4-[4-flurophenoxy]quinoline; 97.4% pure) was fed in diet to Crl:CD-1 (ICR)BR mice (50/sex/dose) at 0, 20, 80 and 250 mg/kg/day for 80 weeks. NOEL = 80 mg/kg (There was a significantly decreased bodyweight gain in both sexes at 250 mg/kg (primarily females). The effect was intermittent in males throughout the study. Relative (to bodyweight) liver and kidney weights were significantly increased in females at 250 mg/kg.) There were no histological (neoplastic or non-neoplastic) effects due to treatment. No adverse effects. Acceptable. M. Silva, 8/24/01
-- ** 039 181139 "XDE-795: Two-Generation Dietary Reproduction Study in Sprague-Dawley Rats," (Liberacki, A.B., Breslin, W.J., Zwinker, G.M., Johnson, K.A., Freshour, N.L.; The Toxicology Research Laboratory, Health and Environmental Sciences, The Dow Chemical, Midland, MI; Laboratory ID#s: DR-0325- 7474-013 [P1, F0, W1, FB, WB, P2, F2 & W4]; 5/23/95). XDE-795 (97.4% pure) was fed in diet to Sprague-Dawley rats (30/sex/dose) at 0, 5, 20 and 100 mg/kg/day, 7 days/week for 2 generations. Systemic NOEL = 20 mg/kg (Kidney pathology was observed in P1 and P2 females at 100 mg/kg. Males showed liver, kidney and epididymal histopathology at 100 mg/kg in P1 and P2 adults.) Reproductive NOEL = 100 mg/kg/day (There were no treatment-related reproductive effects in either sex.) Pup NOEL = 20 mg/kg/ (F1a & F1b pups showed decreased bodyweights at 21 days of lactation and this was considered to be due to excessive dose and decreased food consumption.) No adverse effect. Acceptable. M. Silva, 8/9/01
-- Rangefinding Study: 037 181136 "XDE-795: Oral Gavage Teratology Probe Study in New Zealand White Rabbits," (Zablotny, C.L., Yano, B.L., Breslin, W.J.; The Toxicology Research Laboratory, Health and Environmental Sciences, The Dow Chemical, Midland, MI; Laboratory Project #: DR-0325-7474-014; 11/29/93). XDE-795 (96.2% pure) was administered by oral gavage to time-mated New Zealand white rabbits (7/dose) at 0 (0.5% METHOCEL A4M), 100, 300, 600 and 1000 mg/kg/day, days 7-19 of gestation. Due to extreme maternal toxicity, treatment was discontinued at 600 and 1000 mg/kg from gestation day 15. Effects included decreased fecal output, weight loss, extreme decrease in food consumption. Maternal NOEL = 100 mg/kg (There were increased clinical observations, as well as decreased body weight, body weight gain and food consumption at > 300 mg/kg. Liver weights were significantly increased at 300 mg/kg.) Developmental NOEL > 300 mg/kg (There were no treatment-related effects at 100 or 300 mg/kg.) No adverse effect. These data are supplemental. M. Silva, 8/29/01
-- Definitive Study: ** 038 181138 "XDE-795: Oral Gavage Teratology Study in New Zealand White Rabbits,"(Zablotny, C.L., Yano, B.L., Breslin, W.J.; The Toxicology Research Laboratory, Health and Environmental Sciences, The Dow Chemical, Midland, MI; Laboratory Project #: DR-0325-7474-015; 2/17/94). XDE-795 (96.2% pure) was administered by oral gavage to time-mated New Zealand white rabbits (18/dose) at 0 (0.5% METHOCEL A4M), 20, 80 and 200 mg/kg/day, days 7-19 of gestation. Maternal NOEL = 80 mg/kg (There were increased clinical observations and abortions, as well as decreased body weight, body weight gain and food consumption at 200 mg/kg.) Developmental NOEL > 200 mg/kg (There were no treatment-related effects at any dose.) No adverse effect. Acceptable. M. Silva, 8/9/01
-- 030; 181170; "XR-795: Four Week Dietary Toxicity Study in Fischer 344 Rats" (Szabo, J.R. and Davis, N.L., Health and Environmental Sciences-Texas Lake Jackson Research Center, The Dow Chemical Company, Freeport, Texas, Laboratory Project Study ID TXT: DR-0325-7474-002, 10/12/92). XR-795 (TSN100003, DECO-36-106, purity = 97.6%) was admixed to the diet at dose levels of 0 (untreated diet only), 250, 500, or 1000 mg/kg/day and fed continuously to 5 Fischer 344 rats per sex per dose for 4 weeks. No clinical signs were observed. A treatment-related decrease in mean body weight at all dose levels in both sexes was observed. Treatment-related increases in mean relative liver (in both sexes at all dose levels) and in mean relative kidney (in males at all dose levels and in females at 500 and 1000 mg/kg/day) weights and a treatment-related decrease in mean relative testes weight at 1000 mg/kg/day were observed. Macroscopic examination revealed bilateral testicular atrophy in 3/5 animals at 1000 mg/kg/day. Microscopic examination revealed a moderate to severe decrease in spermatogenesis in 4/5 animals at 1000 mg/kg/day. Possible adverse effect indicated: testicular atrophy with a decrease in spermatogenesis. NOEL (M/F) < 250 mg/kg/day (based on body weight and mean relative organ weight data). Supplemental (only 5 animals per sex per dose were used and the animals were only dosed for 4 weeks). (Corlett, 8/27/01)
-- (Corlett, 8/27/01) 030; 181171; "XR-795: Palatability and Toxicity Probe Study in Beagle Dogs" (Szabo, J.R. and Rachunek, B.L., Health and Environmental Sciences-Texas Lake Jackson Research Center, The Dow Chemical Company, Freeport, Texas, Laboratory Project Study ID: DR-0325-7474-001, 2/28/92). XR-795 (TSN100008, Lot # DECO-36-111, purity = 98.8%) was admixed to the diet at dose levels of 0 (untreated diet only), 100, 500, or 1000 mg/kg/day and fed continuously to 1 beagle dog per sex per dose for 30 days. No clinical signs were observed. A treatment-related decrease in body weight gain or outright body weight loss at all dose levels in males and at 500 and 1000 mg/kg/day in females was observed. A treatment-related decrease in feed consumption in males at all dose levels and in females at 500 and 1000 mg/kg/day was observed. Macroscopic examination revealed a small/atrophic thymus in both the male and the female at 1000 mg/kg/day and small/atrophic testes in the male at 1000 mg/kg/day. Microscopic examination revealed vacuolation of midzonal and centrilobular hepatocytes at 500 and 1000 mg/kg/day in both sexes and thymic lymphoid depletion in the male and female at 1000 mg/kg/day. No adverse effects. NOEL (M) < 100 mg/kg/day, NOEL (F) = 100 mg/kg/day (based on body weight and feed consumption data). Supplemental (only 1 animal per sex per dose was used and the animals were only dosed for 30 days). (Corlett, 8/28/01)
-- 030; 181172; "XDE-795: Four-Week Dietary Toxicity Study in Beagle Dogs" (Szabo, J.R. and Davis, N.L., Health and Environmental Sciences-Texas Lake Jackson Research Center, The Dow Chemical Company, Midland, MI, Texas, Laboratory Project Study ID: DR-0325-7474-008, 2/19/93). XDE-795 (TSN100010, Lot # DECO-104-116, purity = 99.0%) was admixed to the diet at dose levels of 0 (untreated diet only) or 250 mg/kg/day and fed continuously to 2 beagle dogs per sex per dose for 4 weeks. No clinical signs were observed. Treatment-related decreases in mean body weight and in mean feed consumption were observed in both males and females. Microscopic examination revealed treatment-related vacuolation of midzonal and centrilobular hepatocytes in both males and females. No adverse effects. NOEL (M/F) < 250 mg/kg/day (based on body weight and feed consumption data and microscopic findings). Supplemental (only 2 animals per sex per dose were used, only 1 treatment level was used, and the animals were only dosed for 4 weeks). (Corlett, 8/29/01)
Ref: October 4, 2001. SUMMARY OF TOXICOLOGY DATA QUINOXYFEN (XDE-795 & XR-795). California EPA, Department of Pesticide Regulation, Medical Toxicology Branch.

http://www.fluoridealert.org/pesticides/quinoxyfen.ca.epa.2001
.pdf

Sodium bifluoride - Insecticide, Former US EPA List 3 Inert - CAS No. 1333-83-1

Effects of Overexposure. Inhalation of dust or mist may cause severe mucous membrane irritation, burns and, with prolonged or repeated exposure, may cause fluorosis. Eye and skin exposure causes irritation and burns. Product may be absorbed through the skin and produce signs of fluorosis such as weight loss, brittleness of bones, anemia, weakness and stiffness of joints. Ingestion is harmful due to acid burns and fluoride poisoning. Internal bleeding may develop. Effects may not be immediately apparent, especially with dilute solutions.
Ref: Material Safety Data Sheet for Sodium bifluoride. Rev. March 29, 1996. Chemtech Products, Inc., St. Louis MO 63131
http://www.fluorideaction.org/pesticides/sodium.bifluoride.msds.1996.pdf

CHRONIC EXPOSURE o Hydrogen fluoride and hydrofluoric acid are extreme irritants to any part of the body that they contact. The main route of exposure to hydrogen fluoride is inhalation, followed by dermal contact for acute exposure and ingestion for chronic exposure. Symptoms of the chronic effects of hydrofluoric acid include weight loss, malaise, anemia, leukopenia, discoloration of teeth, and osteosclerosis.
Ref: Hazardous Substances Data Bank for SODIUM HYDROGEN DIFLUORIDE CASRN: 1333-83-1
http://www.fluorideaction.org/pesticides/sodium.bifluoride.toxnet.htm

Sodium fluoroacetate (also known as Sodium monofluoroacetate or Compound 1080) - Insecticide, Rodenticide - CAS No. 62-74-8

Abstract: 1080 has been used in New Zealand to control vertebrate pests since 1954, and although a large historical database exists, little is known about the developmental toxicity of this pesticide. This investigation was intended to evaluate the developmental toxicity and teratogenic potential of 1080 in Sprague-Dawley rats following oral intubation. A pilot study was performed to help select doses for the subsequent study and consisted of groups of 5 time-mated females. Animals received 1080 at concentrations ranging from 0.1 to 1.0 mg/kg/day from Days 6 to 17 of gestation. A 60% mortality rate and reductions in maternal body weight and body weight gain as well as decreased litter size and increased resorptions were observed at 1.0 mg/kg/day. Consequently, the doses selected for the main study were 0.1, 0.33 and 0.75 mg/kg/day. Groups of 26 time-mated females received 1080 from Days 6 to 17 of gestation. On Day 20 of gestation, litters were delivered via laparohysterectomy. The results of this study have not been fully evaluated, but visceral and skeletal evaluation results will be presented. Significant reductions in maternal body weight, body weight gain and food consumption were noted at 0.75 mg/kg/day. No changes in litter size or resorptions were observed, but fetal body weight was significantly reduced at 0.75 mg/kg/day. No external fetal abnormalities were noted. Available data indicate that 1080 is maternally toxic at 0.75 mg/kg/day and higher. Embryolethality was noted at 1.0 mg/kg/day, but not at 0.75 mg/kg/day. At this stage, there is no evidence of developmental toxicity. Reductions in fetal body weight at 0.75 mg/kg/day are probably linked to maternal toxicity rather than a direct effect on the fetus.
Ref: Turck PA et al. (1998). Assessment of the developmental toxicity of sodium monofluoroacetate (1080) in rats. Toxicologist 1998 Mar;42(1-S):258-9.

Sodium fluorosilicate (Sodium Hexafluorosilicate) - Insecticiide, Wood Preservative, EPA List 3 Inert - CAS No. 16893-85-9

Toxicological Data. Human Data. Chronic exposure to sodium hexafluorosilicate dust at levels above the eight-hour TWA can result in severe calcification of the ribs, pelvis, and spinal column ligaments; effects on the enzyme system; pulmonary fibrosis; stiffness; irritation of the eyes, skin, and mucous membranes; weight loss; anorexia; anemia; cachexia; wasting; and dental effects. Long-term or repeated exposure to the skin can result in skin rash. A probable oral lethal dose of 50-500 mg/kg, classified as very toxic, has been reported for a 150-pound (70-kg) person receiving between 1 teaspoon and 1 ounce of sodium hexafluorosilicate. Cases of sodium hexafluorosilicate ingestion reported symptoms such as acute respiratory failure, ventricular tachycardia and fibrillation, hypocalcemia, facial numbness, diarrhea, tachycardia, enlarged liver, and cramps of the palms, feet, and legs.
---- [Note from FAN: see Case definition of AIDS as cachexia is cited.]

Ref: Sodium Hexafluorosilicate [CASRN 16893-85-9] and Fluorosilicic Acid [CASRN 16961-83-4]. Review of Toxicological Literature. October 2001. Prepared for Scott Masten, Ph.D. National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences P.O. Box 12233 Research Triangle Park, North Carolina 27709 Contract No. N01-ES-65402. Submitted by Karen E. Haneke, M.S. (Principal Investigator) Bonnie L. Carson, M.S. (Co-Principal Investigator) Integrated Laboratory Systems P.O. Box 13501 Research Triangle Park, North Carolina 27709.

http://www.fluoridealert.org/pesticides/Fluorosilicates.NIH.2001.pdf

Sulfentrazone - Herbicide - CAS No. 122836-35-5

-- A developmental toxicity study in rats resulted in a maternal (systemic) LOEL of 50.0 mg/kg/day based upon increased relative spleen weight and splenic extramedullary hematopoiesis. The maternal (systemic) NOEL is 25.00 mg/kg/day. The developmental (fetal) LOEL is 25.0 mg/kg/day based upon 1) decreased mean fetal weight and 2) retardation in skeletal development as evidenced by an increased number of litters with any variation and by decreased numbers of caudal vertebral and metacarpal ossification sites. The developmental (fetal) NOEL is 10.0 mg/kg/day. Evidence of treatment-related developmental toxicity consisted of decreased fetal viability, decreased fetal body weight, and increased incidence of fetal alterations, comprised, for the most part, of skeletal malformations and variations. A supplementary prenatal oral developmental toxicity study in rats confirmed the maternal and fetal findings of the previously conducted study and did not alter the study conclusions.
Ref: US EPA. Pesticide Fact Sheet. Sulfentrazone Reason for Issuance: Registration of a New Chemical Date Issued: February 27, l997.

http://www.epa.gov/opprd001/factsheets/sulfentrazone.pdf

-- 90-Day oral toxicity rodents (mice) - [870.3100] NOAEL = 60 mg/kg/day for males and 79.8 mg/kg/day for females LOAEL = 108.4 mg/ kg/day for males and 143.6 mg/kg/ day for females based on decreased body weights, body weight gains, red blood cells, hemoglobin, hematocrit, and severity of splenic micropathology (increased incidence and severity of extramedullary hematopoiesis)
-- 90-Day oral toxicity in nonrodents (dogs) - [870.3150] NOAEL = 28 mg/kg/day LOAEL = 57 mg/kg/ day for males and 73 mg/kg/day for females based on decreased body weights (7-10%) and body weight gains during first 5 weeks of study; decreased hemoglobin, hematocrit, mean cell volume, mean cell hemoglobin and mean cell hemoglobin concentration, and increased absolute liver weights and alkaline phosphatase levels, and microscopic changes in the liver and spleen (pigmented sinusoidal microphages in the liver, swollen centrilobular hepatocytes and pigmented reticuloendotheli al cells in the spleen)
-- 2-Generation reproduction and fertility effects (rats) - [870.3800] Parental/Systemic NOAEL = 14 mg/kg/day for males and 16 mg/kg/day for females LOAEL = 33 mg/kg/ day for males and 40 mg/kg/day for females based on decreased maternal body weight/body weight gain during gestation in both generation (P and F1) and reduced premating body weight gain in second generation (F1) males Reproductive NOAEL = 14 mg/kg/ day for males and 16 mg/kg/day for females LOAEL = 33 mg/kg/ day for males and 40 mg/kg/day for females based on increased duration of gestation in females and degeneration and/ or atrophy of the germinal epithelium of the testes and oligospermia and intratubular degenerated seminal material in the epididymis of F1 males Offspring NOAEL = 14 mg/kg/ day for males and 16 mg/kg/day for females LOAEL = 33 mg/kg/ day for males and 40 mg/kg/day for females based on reduced prenatal viability (fetal and litter), reduced litter size, increased number of stillborn pups, reduced pup and litter postnatal survival and decreased pup body weights throughout lactation
-- Reproduction and fertility effects (rat). Nonguideline - [870.3800] Parental/Systemic NOAEL = 20 mg/kg/day LOAEL = 51 mg/kg/ day (F1 females) based on decrease in pre-mating body weight gain (10%) Offspring and Reproductive NOAEL = 16 mg/kg/ day LOAEL = 40 mg/kg/ day based on reduced gestation day 20 fetal weights; decreased postnatal day 0, 4 and 7 pup weights; decreased pup survival; delayed vaginal patency; reduced epididymal, prostate, and testicular weights Additional information supports the conclusions reached in the 2- generation reproduction study in rats
-- Combined chronic toxicity/carcinogenicity rats - [870.4300] NOAEL = 40 mg/kg/day for males and 36.4 mg/kg/day in females LOAEL = 82.2 mg/kg/ day for males and 67 mg/kg/day for females based on dose-related decreased body weights (11 and 19%), body weight gains (13 and 26%), food consumption (13 and 19%), hemoglobin, hematocrit, mean cell volume, and mean cell hemoglobin. Increased nucleated red blood cells and reticulocytes in bone of females at 124.7 mg/kg/ day. No evidence of carcinogenicity
-- Subchronic neurotoxicity screening battery - [870.6200]. NOAEL = 30 mg/kg/day for males and 37 mg/kg/day for females LOAEL = 150 mg/kg/ day for males and 180 mg/kg/day for females based on increased incidence of clinical signs; decreased body weight, body weight gains, and food consumption in females; and increased motor activity in females. At 5,000 ppm, included increased mortality; decreased body weights, and body weight gains in males; decreased hindlimb grip strength and increased tail flick latency in males at week 8; distended bladders with red fluid and enlarged spleen. No evidence of neuropathology at 2,500 and 5,000 ppm.
Ref: Federal Register: September 24, 2003. Sulfentrazone; Pesticide Tolerances. Final Rule.

http://www.fluorideaction.org/pesticides/sulfentrazone.fr.sept24.03.htm

Sulfuryl fluoride - Fumigant insecticide - CAS No. 2699-79-8

-- In subchronic (90-day) inhalation studies in rats, dogs, rabbits and mice, the brain was the major target organ. Malacia and/or vacuolation were observed in the white matter of the brain in all four species. The portions of the brain most often affected were the caudate-putamen nucleus in the basal ganglia, the white fiber tracts in the internal and external capsules, and the globus pallidus of the cerebrum. In dogs and rabbits, clinical signs of neurotoxicity (including tremors, tetany, incoordination, convulsions and/or hind limb paralysis) were also observed. Inflammation of the nasal passages and histiocytosis of the lungs were observed in rats and rabbits; but not in dogs, in which species inflammation of the upper respiratory tract was more prominent in the 2-week study. In rats, kidney damage was also observed. In mice, follicular cell hypertrophy was noted in the thyroid gland. Decreased body weights and body weight gains were also observed in rats, dogs and mice.
-- In chronic (1-2 year) inhalation studies in rats, dogs and mice, target organs were the same as in the 90-day studies. In rats, severe kidney damage caused renal failure and mortalities in many animals. Additional gross and histopathological lesions in numerous organs and tissues were considered to be secondary to the primary effect on the kidneys. Other treatment-related effects in rats included effects in the brain (vacuolation of the cerebrum and thalamus/hypothalamus) and respiratory tract (reactive hyperplasia and inflammation of the respiratory epithelium of the nasal turbinates, lung congestion, aggregates of alveolar macrophages). In dogs and mice, increased mortalities, malacia and/or vacuolation in the white matter in the brain, histopathology in the lungs, and follicular cell hypertrophy in the thyroid gland were observed. Decreased body weights and body weight gains were also noted in all three species.
-- In a developmental toxicity inhalation study in rats, no developmental toxicity was observed in the pups. Although no maternal toxicity was observed in this study at the highest dose tested (225 ppm), significant maternal toxicity (decreased body weight, body weight gain and food consumption; increased water consumption and kidney weights; and gross pathological changes in the kidneys and liver) was observed in a previously conducted range-finding study at a slightly higher dose level (300 ppm). In a developmental toxicity inhalation study in rabbits, decreased fetal body weights were observed in the pups. At the same dose level, decreased body weight and body weight gain were observed in the dams. In a 2-generation reproduction inhalation study in rats, vacuolation of the white matter in the brain, pathology in the lungs (pale, gray foci; increased alveolar macrophages) and decreased body weights were observed in the parental animals. Decreased pup body weights in the F1 and F2 generations were observed in the offspring. No effects on reproductive parameters were noted in this study. No quantitative or qualitative evidence of increased susceptibility of fetuses or pups was observed in the developmental toxicity or reproduction studies on sulfuryl fluoride.
Ref: Federal Register: September 5, 2001 (Volume 66, Number 172). Sulfuryl Fluoride; Proposed Pesticide Temporary Tolerances.

http://www.fluorideaction.org/pesticides/sulfuryl.flu.fr.sept.5.2001.htm

-- Two fatalities occurred when the owners of a home re-entered after the dwelling had been fumigated with 250 pounds of sulfuryl fluoride. The concentration to which the occupants were exposed was not determined. The man died within 24 hr, and the woman expired 6 days after exposure. Signs of intoxication included severe dyspnea [abnormal breathing], cough, generalized seizure, cardiopulmonary arrest (in the male), and weakness, anorexia, nausea, repeated vomiting, and hypoxemia [subnormal oxygenation of arterial blood, short of anoxia]; ventricular fibrillation and diffuse pulmonary infiltration were also reported in the female. [American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists, Inc. Documentation of the Threshold Limit Values and Biological Exposure Indices. 6th ed. Volumes I, II, III. Cincinnati, OH: ACGIH, 1991.1471]
-- Groups of 35 to 36 pregnant Fischer 344 rats and 28 to 29 pregnant New Zealand White rabbits were exposed to 0, 25, 75, or 225 ppm of sulfuryl fluoride vapor via inhalation for 6 hr/day on days 6 to 15 and 6 to 18 of gestation, respectively. Among rats, maternal water consumption was increased in the 225 ppm exposure group (p < 0.05), but there were no indications of embryotoxicity, fetotoxicity, or teratogenicity in any of the exposed groups. Among rabbits, maternal weight loss during the exposure period (days 6 to 18) was observed in the 225 ppm group. Decr fetal body wt, considered secondary to maternal weight loss, were also observed at 225 ppm. However, no evidence of embryotoxicity or teratogenicity was observed among rabbits in any exposure group. For both species a low incidence of malformations were seen scattered among all exposure groups, with no indication of any treatment related effects. In preliminary studies, exposure of pregnant rats and rabbits to 30, 100, or 300 ppm sulfuryl fluoride produced significantly decr maternal wt gain in both rats and rabbits exposed to 300 ppm. Increased absolute kidney wt (rats) and decr liver wt (rabbits) were also observed at this exposure level. No adverse effects were observed at either 30 or 100 ppm in either species.

Ref: Hazardous Substances Data Bank for SULFURYL FLUORIDE CASRN: 2699-79-8.
http://toxnet.nlm.nih.gov/cgi-bin/sis/htmlgen?HSDB

tau-Fluvalinate - Acaricide, Insecticide - CAS No. 102851-06-9

-- In a 2-generation rat study with racemic fluvalinate reproduction was subnormal in all groups, including controls. At dietary doses of 100 ppm and 500 ppm body weights were reduced. At 500 ppm, the offspring showed reduced viability, survival and growth rates and parent animals showed skin lesions and reduced body weight gains. Beginning with the low dose (20 ppm), a dose dependent impairment of spermatogenesis was observed in males of the F0 generation.
-- A 2-generation reproductin toxicity study in rats with tsau fluvalinate showed parental and developmental effects in the mid and high dose group. 2 of 4 males of the F1-generation from the mediam dose group failing to mate had atrophic seminiferous tubules in both testes and spermatozoa were partly absent from the epididymides. Litter and mean pup weights of the F2 generation of the mediam dose group were lower between days 8 and 21. Incidence of fur loss and scabbing was a marginally increased among adults. F1 and F2 pups of the highest dose group had tremors, mainly arond lactation day 14, indicating toxic effects of tau fluvalinate excreted in rat milk. As toenails of all animals were clipped prior to treatment and later at weekly intervals a final NOEL can not be derived. No adverse substance related effects were observed at 0.5 mg/kg bw/day.

Ref: Revised Summary Report. EMEA/MRL/021-REV1/95. Committee for Veterinary Medicinal Products. The European Agency for the Evaluation of Medicinal Products.
http://www.fluorideaction.org/pesticides/tau.fluvalinate.1995.review.pdf

Teflon (PTFE: polytetrafluoroethylene) - EPA List 3 Inert - CAS No. 9002-84-0

Abstract. Toxic effects following inhalation exposure to polytetrafluoroethylene (9002-84-0) (PTFE) pyrolysis products were determined in rats. Greenacres-Flora-rats were exposed to PTFE pyrolysis products containing hydrolyzable fluoride equal to 50 parts per million of carbonyl fluoride (353-50-4) for 1 hour daily for 5 days. On day 1 and 5 of the exposure period, and 3, 7, and 18 days postexposure urine samples were collected and examined for fluoride excretion and glucose, protein, and ketones. On each of those days, a test animal was killed, and kidney and lung tissues were tested for succinic-dehydrogenase activity. Weight changes and mortality during the course of the experiment were also noted. During the 5 exposure days and shortly afterwards, mortality reached 22 percent, although the total exposure dose was less than half the median lethal dose for one exposure. Daily urinary fluoride excretion jumped to 14 times normal on the first exposure day and remained at 4 times normal by the eighteenth postexposure day. By the fifth exposure day, body weights dropped 30 percent, urine glucose, protein, and ketones were abnormal, and succinic-dehydrogenase activity dropped to near zero in the kidney and had more than doubled in the lung; by the eighteenth post exposure day, these values had returned to normal. The authors conclude that carbonyl fluoride generated during the pyrolysis of PTFE hydrolyzes in body fluids and produces fluoride toxicity. The cumulative effect of repeated exposures is much more toxic than a single equivalent exposure. If death does not result, the metabolic inhibition due to fluoride poisoning is completely reversible.
Ref: Biochemical Changes Associated with Toxic Exposures to Polytetrafluoroethylene Pyrolysis Products by Scheel LD, McMillan L, Phipps FC. American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal, Vol. 29, No. 1, pages 49-53, 1968.

Tefluthrin - Insecticide - CAS No. 79538-32-2

Reproductive and developmental toxicity. In a rat developmental study, [[Page 50363]] delayed ossification was noted in the highest dose group (5 mg/kg/day), along with significant maternal toxicity (decreased body weight (bwt)). The developmental no observed effect level (NOEL) for this study was established at 3 mg/kg/day.
Ref: Federal Register: September 25, 1997 [Page 50337-50367]. Notice of Filing of Pesticide Petitions.
http://www.fluoridealert.org/pesticides/bifenthrin.fr.sept.25.1997.htm

Tembotrione - Herbicide - CAS No. 335104-84-2

• There was evidence of increased susceptibility following in utero and postnatal exposure in the developmental and 2-generation studies. Fetal effects were increased skeletal variations including delayed ossification and decreased fetal body weight and increased number of runts. These effects were observed at the lowest dose tested (25 mg/kg/day) and at a dose lower than that which caused marginal maternal toxicity (125 mg/kg/day, decreased body-weight gains and food consumption)... (page 16)
• In a developmental toxicity study (MRID 46695647), AE0172747 (95.0% w/w; Batch# PFI 0195) in 0.5% methylcellulose 400 was administered via gavage at a dose volume of 10 mL/kg to 25 Sprague Dawley rats/dose group at dose levels of 0, 25, 125, or 500 mg/kg/day from gestation days (GD) 6-20. On GD 21, all dams were euthanized, and the uterus was removed via cesarean section and its contents examined. Fetuses were examined for external, visceral, and skeletal malformations, anomalies, and variations. Maternal body-weight gains were decreased (p<=0.05) by 52-92% >=25 mg/kg/day during GD 6-8, and continued to be decreased (p<=0.05) by 28-32% at >=125 mg/kg/day during GD 8-
10.
Body-weight gains for the overall (GD 0-21) study were decreased (not significant) by 9% at >=125 25 mg/kg/day; and these decreases were still evident when corrected for gravid uterine weight (decr.11-13%). Food consumption was decreased (p<=0.05) by 8-16% in the 125 and 500 mg/kg/day dams during GD 6-12 and remained decreased (decr.11%; p<=0.01) at 500 mg/kg/day during GD 12-14. Because the decrease in body-weight gain in the 25 mg/kg/day group was transient and did not affect overall body-weight gains, it was not considered adverse. Although not adverse to the dams, this initial decrease in weight gain may have contributed to the decreased (decr.3%; p<=0.01) fetal body weights at this dose. The maternal LOAEL is 125 mg/kg/day based on decreased body-weight gains and food consumption. The maternal NOAEL is 25 mg/kg/day.
-- At >=25 mg/kg/day, fetal body weights were dose-dependently decreased (p<=0.01) by 3-16% and a dose-related increase in the number of runts (fetuses weighing less than 4.0 g) was observed compared to controls.
Reference: Tembotrione. Human-Health Risk Assessment for Proposed Uses on Field Corn, Sweet Corn and Popcorn. USEPA. September 7, 2007.

• In a developmental toxicity study (MRIDs 46695703, 46695701, and 46695702), AE0172747 (95.0% w/w; Batch# PFI 0195) in 0.5% methylcellulose 400 was administered via gavage at a dose volume of 4 mL/kg to 25 New Zealand White rabbits/dose group at dose levels of 0, 1, 10, or 100 mg/kg bw/day from gestation days (GD) 6-28. On GD 29, all surviving does were euthanized, and the uterus was removed via cesarean section and its contents examined. Fetuses were examined for external, visceral, and skeletal malformations, anomalies, and variations. At 100 mg/kg bw/day, between GD 15 and 22, five pregnant females were either found dead or were euthanized in extremis or following abortion. Of these five animals, one (#530) was found dead on GD 15; three (#529, 526, and 522) were euthanized in extremis on GD 16, 17, 22; and another (# 517) aborted and was euthanized on GD 21. Marked reductions in food consumption, body-weight loss (between -0.17 and -0.55 kg), and one or more occasions of few or no feces were observed in all five of these does prior to death.. At 10 mg/kg bw/day, one female (# 499) showed a marked reduction in food consumption, body- weight loss of -0.20 kg, and one or more occasions of few or no feces prior to abortion on GD 23. Absolute and relative (to body weight) food consumption were decreased (p≤0.05) by 17% in the 10 mg/kg bw/day group at the beginning of treatment from GD 6-8. At 1 mg/kg bw/day, one female (#475) was killed in extremis on GD 21 following: a marked reduction in food consumption; body-weight loss of -0.35 kg; one or more occasions of few or no feces; and one occasion (GD 19) of no urine.
-- The maternal LOAEL is 100 mg/kg bw/day based on mortality, clinical signs of toxicity (i.e., few or no feces), abortion and decreased body weight and food consumption.
-- The maternal NOAEL is 10 mg/kg bw/day
(page 65-66).
-- The developmental LOAEL is 10 mg/kg bw/day based on decreased or delayed growth and/or development of the skeleton and increased incidences of other skeletal variations
and anomalies.

-- The developmental NOAEL is 1 mg/kg bw/day.
Reference: Tembotrione. Human-Health Risk Assessment for Proposed Uses on Field Corn, Sweet Corn and Popcorn. USEPA. September 7, 2007.

Tetraconazole -Fungicide - CAS No. 112281-77-3

Reproduction Study Rats received 0, 10, 70 or 490 ppm of tetraconazole in the diet for two generations. F0 and F1 females at 490 ppm had reduced food consumption, and lower body weights during premating and gestation, as did F1 males of this group. Increased mortality (due to dystocia) and higher liver, kidney and ovary weights were seen in adults of both generations at 490 ppm. Mating performance and pregnancy rate for both F0 and F1 generations were not affected. A prolonged gestation period was associated with dystocia, and total litter loss in some F0 and F1 females at 70 and 490 ppm. Increased post-implantation loss and/or fetal deaths and consequently reduced litter size at birth, and lower pup weight gain during lactation were observed in F1 and F2 pups at 490 ppm. Offspring at 70 and 490 ppm had a slight retardation of growth and sexual maturation (delayed vaginal opening and balanopreputial cleavage). Increased liver weights were seen in F1 and F2 pups at 490 ppm as well as female pups at 70 ppm at weaning. No external and internal abnormalities were found for both F1 and F2 pups. The NOEL was 10 ppm (0.4 mg/kg bw/day) for reproduction and postnatal toxicity. (page 5-6)
• Developmental Studies Pregnant rats received 0, 5, 22.5 or 100 mg/kg bw/day of tetraconazole by gavage on gestation days 6-15. Post-dosing salivation was noted in dams at 22.5 and 100 mg/kg bw/day. Increased water consumption at 100 mg/kg bw/day, and decreased food consumption and body weight gain at 22.5 and 100 mg/kg bw/day were observed. Liver and kidney weights were increased in dams at 100 mg/kg bw/day. There were no treatment-related effects on embryo/fetal loss, litter size and sex ratio of pups. Variable fetal weights within each group at 22.5 and 100 mg/kg bw/day might be associated with variation in degrees of skeletal ossification. Incidences of hydronephrosis and hydroureter at 100 mg/kg bw/day were increased. The number of fetuses with supernumerary rib(s) was higher, and ossification in skeletons tended to be advanced at 100 mg/kg bw/day. The NOEL was 5 mg/kg bw/day for maternal toxicity, and was 22.5 mg/kg bw/day for fetal development.
-- Pregnant rabbits received 0, 20, 40 or 80 mg/kg bw/day of tetraconazole in a preliminary study, and 0, 7.5, 15 or 30 mg/kg bw/day in the main study, by gavage on gestation days 6-18. Rabbits at 80 mg/kg bw/day showed minimal to nil food intake, body weight loss and deteriorated condition, and were sacrificed on day 7 of dosing showing increased early fetal loss. At 40 mg/kg bw/day, reduced food intake, body weight loss, lower fecal output and emaciation occurred during the dosing period, and increased liver and kidney weight were observed at necropsy. Abortion, death, post-implantation loss, and reduced fetal weight were seen in this group. Food consumption and body weight gain of dams were lower at 30 mg/kg bw/day. Incidences of malformation, anomalies and skeletal variants were low in all groups. The NOEL was 15 mg/kg bw/day for maternal toxicity, and was 30 mg/kg bw/day for fetal growth/development. (page 6)
Ref: August 2005 - Evaluation of Tetraconazole in the product Domark 40ME Fungicide. Australian Pesticides and Veterinary Medicines Authority.
http://www.fluorideaction.org/pesticides/tetraconazole.2005.report.australia.pdf

-- Reproductive and developmental toxicity. A developmental toxicity study with rats given oral gavage doses of 5, 22.5, and 100 mg/kg/day from days 6 through 15 of gestation resulted in a NOAEL for maternal toxicity of 5 mg/kg/day based upon bwt reduction, reduced food intake and post-dose salivation at the two higher doses, as compared with zero-dose controls. The developmental NOAEL was 22.5 mg/kg/day. Among the highest dose group there was evidence of minimal increase in the incidence of supernumerary ribs among the fetuses.
-- A chronic feeding/carcinogenicity study was conducted with tetraconazole in Crl:CD-l (ICR)BR mice at dietary levels of 10, 90, 800, and 1,250 ppm for 80 weeks. Treatment-related non-neoplastic changes were also seen at 1,250 ppm in the lungs, kidneys, testes, epididymides, ovaries and bone, particularly the cranium; a compression of the brain was noted in a number of mice reflecting the extent of
cranial bone changes and an increased thymic involution was seen in male mice that died on test. The 1,250 ppm dietary level for tetraconazole, because of the substantial bwt gain changes and increased mortality (more in males), appeared to be above the maximum tolerated dose (MTD). At 800 ppm, there were increases in non neoplastic changes in lungs, kidneys, testes, epididymides, ovaries and bone. In addition, there was substantial reduction in weight gain as compared with zero-dose control animals, but the mortality rate was unaffected. Eight hundred ppm appeared to be a reasonable estimate of the MTD for mouse.
Ref: Federal Register: October 14, 1999. Notice of Filing Pesticide Petitions to Establish a Tolerance for Certain Pesticide Chemicals in or on Food. PP 9F5066, 9F6023, and 7E4830. http://www.fluoridealert.org/pesticides/tetraconazole.fr.oct14.1999.htm

1,1,1,2-Tetrafluoroethane (HFC-134a) - Propellant, US EPA List 4B Inert - CAS No. 811-97-2

-- In a developmental toxicity study, Lu and Staples (1981) exposed pregnant CD rats to HFC-134a at 30,000, 100,000, or 300,000 ppm for 6 h/d from days 6 to 15 of gestation. Following exposure of dams at 300,000 ppm, there was a significant reduction in fetal weight and significant increases in several skeletal variations. At 300,000 ppm, signs of maternal toxicity included reduced food consumption, reduced body weight gain, lack of response to noise stimuli, severe tremors, and uncoordinated movements. Dams exposed at 100,000 ppm showed reduced response to noise stimuli and uncoordinated movements. No terata or evidence for developmental toxicity were observed following exposure of dams at 30,000 or 100,000 ppm.
-- -- Hodge et al. (1979) exposed groups of 29 or 30 pregnant Wistar-derived rats to HFC-134a at 0, 1,000, 10,000, or 50,000 ppm for 6 h/d on days 6 to 15 of gestation. Abnormal clinical signs were observed in the animals, but there was no effect on maternal body weights. At 50,000 ppm, there was no evidence of terata, but fetal body weight was significantly reduced, and skeletal ossification was significantly delayed. There were no effects on any parameter at 10,000 ppm.
-- -- Groups of 28 pregnant New Zealand white rabbits were exposed at 0, 2,500, 10,000, or 40,000 ppm for 6 h/d on days 7 through 19 of pregnancy (Collins et al. 1995; Wickramaratne 1989 a,b). Doe were weighed during the study and sacrificed on day 29 of gestation... In the mid- and high-dose exposure groups, doe had reduced body weight gains compared with the control group; lower weight gains were partially associated with decreased food consumption. With the exception of a significantly increased incidence of unossified seventh-lumbar transverse process in fetuses in the 10,000- and 40,000-ppm groups, all other parameters were similar among control and treatment groups. This effect was also observed in the control group and was not considered treatment related. Therefore, there was no adverse developmental or teratogenic effect associated with exposure to FC-134a.
-- ... Fetotoxicity was ovserved in rats when dams were exposed at 50,000 ppm (Hodge et al. 1979). Slight maternal toxicity in rabbits, as indicated by lower body weight gains compared with the control group, were noted at 10,000 and 50,000 ppm (Collins et al. 1995). There was a slight delay in physical development of F1 rats following exposure of F0 females at 64,400 ppm (Alexander et al. 1996).
-- Alexander DJ, Libretto SE, Adams MJ, Hughes EW, Bannerman M. 1996. HFA-134a (1,1,1,2-tetrafluoroethane): effects of inhalation exposure upon reproductive performance, development and maturation of rats. Human Exp Toxicol 15:508-517.
-- Collins MA, Rusch GM, Sato F, Hext PM, Millischer RJ. 1995. 1,1,1,2-Tetrafluoroethane: repeat exposure inhalation toxicity in the rat, developmental toxicity in the rabbit, and genotoxicity in vitro and in vivo. Fundam Appl Toxicol 25:271-280.
-- Hodge MCE, Kilmartin M, Riley RA, Weight TM, Wilson J. 1979. Arcton 134a: teratogenicity study in the rat. ICI Report no. CTL/P/417. Central Toxicology Laboratory, Alderly Park, Macclesfield, Cheshire, U.K.
Lu M, Staples R. 1981. 1,1,1,2-tetrafkyirietgabe (FC-134a): embryo-fetal toxicity and teratogenicity study by inhalation in the rat. Report No. 317-81. Haskell Laboratory, Wilmington, DE.
-- Wickramaratne GA. 1989a. HCF-134a: Teratogenicity inhalation study in the rabbit. ICI Report No. CTL/P/2504. Central Toxicology Laboratory, Alderly Park, Macclesfield, Cheshire UK (Unpublished).
--
Wickramaratne GA. 1989b. HCF-134a: Embryotoxicity inhalation study in the rabbit. ICI Report No. CTL/P/2380. Central Toxicology Laboratory, Alderly Park, Macclesfield, Cheshire, UK. (Unpublished).

Ref: National Research Council. 2002. Acute Exposure Guideline Levels for Selected Airborne Chemicals. Volume 2. Subcommittee on Acute Exposure Guideline Levels. Committee on Toxicology, Board of Environmental Studies and Toxicology, Division of Earth and Life Studies. National Academy Press, Washington DC. Available from: National Academy Press, 2101 Constitution Ave, NW, Box 285, Washington DC 20055. ISBN 0-309-08511-X. Online at:

http://books.nap.edu/books/030908511X/html/index.html

TFM (3-Trifluoro-Methyl-4-Nitro-Phenol) - Lampricide, Piscicide - CAS No. 88-30-2

In a second 90-day feeding study in rats (MRID 00112727), groups of weanling SD rats (10/sex/group) were fed diets containing TFM (90%) at concentrations of 500, 900, 1620, 2916, or 5248 ppm for 90 days. The control groups (20/sex) received the untreated diet. The results showed that body weights of the 2916 and 5248 ppm groups were consistently decreased (10-13%) in males from week 3 to the end of the study. The decrease was statistically significant (8)
Ref: Reregistration Eligibility Decision (RED) 3-Trifluoro-Methyl-4-Nitro-Phenol and Niclosamide. US EPA, Office of Prevention, Pesticides And Toxic Substances (7508C). Report No. EPA 738-R-99-007. November 1999.
http://www.fluoridealert.org/pesticides/tfm.red.1999.pdf

... The sensitivity of mudpuppies, frog tadpoles, and adult frogs to use of 3-trifluoromethyl-4- nitrophenol (TFM) in the Great Lakes has been noted on many occasions. TFM has been used annually since 1958 for the control of sea lampreys throughout the Great Lakes. Amphibians regularly have been found dead in creeks immediately after TFM treatment (Gilderhus and Johnson 1980, Matson 1990). Laboratory tests have confirmed that species native to the Great Lakes Basin, such as the grey tree frog, northern leopard frog, and bullfrog, are sensitive to levels of TFM used for sea lamprey control (Chandler and Marking 1975). Mudpuppy population size decreased by a minimum of 29 per cent after a spray event in the Grand River of Ohio (Matson 1990)...
Ref: Conservation Priorities for the Amphibians and Reptiles of Canada. Sept 2000 report published by World Wildlife Fund Canada and Canadian Amphibian and Reptile Conservation Network. Prepared by David Seburn and Carolyn Seburn.

Thiazopyr - Herbicide - CAS No. 117718-60-2

-- 90-day Oral (Dog): NOEL (systemic) =10 ppm. (0.2 mg/kg/day(m); 0.3 mg/kg/day(f)), based on decreased body weight gain and increased SGPT [serum glutamic-oxaloacetic transaminase] levels at 3 and 6 m/kg/day for males and females, respectively and above; decreased total protein and albumin concentration and albumin/globulin ratio, increased AP, hepatocytic hypertrophy, oval cell proliferation and increased hepatocytic fatty content at 35 mg/kg/day and above; and decreased calcium concentration which is thought to be related to hypoalbuminemia, decreased cholesterol and triglyceride concentrations, slightly increased GGT and SGPT, follicular hyperplasia of thyroid, increased colloid content in follicles and increased relative thyroid weight at 175 mg/kg/day.
-- A developmental toxicity study in rats at 0, 10, 100 and 250 mg/kg/day with a maternal toxicity NOEL of 100 mg/kg/day. The effect were increased liver weight, increased salivation, significantly decreased body weight gain and decreased food consumption. The developmental NOEL was also 100 mg/kg/day. The effects at the high dose were increased incidence of unossified sternebrae and 7th cervical rib variation. No development effects were observed below the maternally toxic doses.
-- A two year rat carcinogenicity study at doses of 0, 0.04, 4.4, 44.2 or 136.4 mg/kg/day (Males) 0, 0.06, 0.6, 5.6, 56.3 or 177.1 mg/kg/day (female) with a NOEL of 4.4 mg/kg/day. The effects were protruding eyes, evidence of mild anemia, increased GGT and cholesterol, increased absolute and relative liver, kidney and thyroid weights and significant increase in microscopic lesions in the liver (hypertrophy and vacuolar changes), kidney (nephropathy) and thyroid (hypertrophy and hyperplasia); decreased mean body weight and body weight gain and food consumption. A statistically significant increase in thyroid follicular cell adenomas/cystadenomas were observed in males at 44.2 and 136.4 mg/kg/day. A nonsignificant increase in renal tubular adenomas in high-dose females was considered to be equivocal.
-- a. Thiazopyr was administered through the diet at 0 and 150 mg/kg/day rats to determine the subchronic effect on hormone level and other biochemical endpoints. Animals were assayed at 7, 14, 28, 56 or 90 days. Significant decreases in body weight gain were observed at 90 days. Early in the study the treated rats showed increases in TSH (ranging from 133 to 200% of controls) and decreases in T4 (ranging from 43% to 76% of controls). In addition there were increases in liver and thyroid weights and increases in thyroid follicular cell hypertrophy/hyperplasia. Reverse T3 was increased at 28 days, and T3 was either not affected or increased. There were indications of increases in hepatic UDPGT activity and significant increases in T4 UDPGT activity. Hepatic 5'-monodeiodinase activity was either not affected or decreased. The effects observed in this study were supportive of the theory that thiazopyr may induce thyroid tumors through a disruption in the thyroid-pituitary hormonal feedback mechanisms.
Ref: US EPA. Pesticide Fact Sheet. Thiazopyr Reason for Issuance: Registration of a New Chemical Date Issued: February 20, l997.

http://www.epa.gov/opprd001/factsheets/thiazopyr.pdf

Tolylfluanid - Fungicide - CAS No. 731-27-1

-- 90-Day oral toxicity rodents (rat). NOAEL = 20.1 milligram/kilogram/ day (mg/kg/day) male (M) LOAEL = 108 mg/kg/ day, based on changes in clinical blood chemistry associated with the liver and thyroid (M) NOAEL = 131 mg/kg/day female (F) LOAEL = 736.1 mg/kg/ day, based on changes in clinical blood chemistry associated with the liver and thyroid and decreased body weights (F)
-- 90-Day oral toxicity in nonrodents (dog). NOAEL = 23.1/25 mg/kg/ day (F/M) LOAEL = 67.2/69.4 (F/ M) mg/kg/day, based on decreased body weight gains and changes in liver structure and function in both sexes

-- Prenatal developmental in rodents (rat). Maternal NOAEL = not determined LOAEL = 100 mg/kg/ day, based on decreased body weight gains and food consumption.
-- Prenatal developmental in rodents (rat). Maternal NOAEL = 100 mg/kg/day LOAEL = 300 mg/kg/ day, based on dose- related decreased body weight gains during the dosing interval. Developmental NOAEL > 1,000 mg/kg/day (HDT) LOAEL = not identified
-- Prenatal developmental in nonrodents (rabbit). Maternal NOAEL = 25 mg/kg/day LOAEL = 70 mg/kg/day, based on evidence of hepatotoxicity (increased glutamate dehydrogenase (GLDH) and triglyceride levels and gross and microscopic liver pathology) and decreased food consumption and equivocal decreases in body weight gain. Developmental NOAEL = 25 mg/kg/day LOAEL= 70 mg/kg/day, based on increased malformations (arthrogryposis of front extremities and small orbital cavity/folded retina) and variations (floating rib and accelerated ossification).
-- 2-Generation reproduction and fertility effects (rat). Parental/systemic NOAEL = 7.9-10.5 mg/ kg/day LOAEL = 57.5-78.0 mg/ kg/day, based on decreased body weights, body weight gains, and liver weights in the P females Reproductive NOAEL = 7.9-10.5 mg/kg/day LOAEL = 57.5-78.0 mg/ kg/day, based on reduced litter size Offspring NOAEL = 7.9- 10.5 mg/kg/day LOAEL = 57.5-78.0 mg/ kg/day, based on decreased pup weights, increased pup deaths and related pup viability indices.
-- 2-Generation reproduction and effects (rat). Parental/Systemic NOAEL = 20.1-26.3 mg/ fertility kg/day LOAEL = 83.4-109.5 mg/ kg/day, based on decreased body weights and body weight gains Reproductive NOAEL = 83.4 - 109.5 mg/kg/ day LOAEL = 335.6-492.4 mg/kg/day, based on decreased mean litter size Offspring NOAEL = 20.1-26.3 mg/kg/day LOAEL = 83.4-109.5 mg/ kg/day, based on decreased pup weights

-- 2-Generation reproduction and fertility effects (rat). Parental/Systemic NOAEL = 75 mg/kg/day LOAEL = 375 mg/kg/ day, based on decreased body weights and body weight gains for both generations Reproductive NOAEL > 375 mg/kg/day (HDT) LOAEL not established Offspring NOAEL = 75 mg/kg/day LOAEL = 375 mg/kg/ day, based on decreased survival and reduced body weights during lactation
-- Chronic toxicity (dog)
. NOAEL = 12.5 mg/kg/ day LOAEL = 62.5 mg/kg/ day (M), based on decreased body weight gains
Ref: Federal Register: September 25, 2002. Tolylfluanid; Pesticide Tolerance. Final Rule. Federal Register.

http://www.fluoridealert.org/pesticides/tolylfluanid.fr.sept25.2002.htm

Transfluthrin - Insecticide - CAS No. 118712-89-3

Reproductive Toxicity. Developmental studies in both the rat and rabbit provided no evidence of teratogenicity when transfluthrin was administered at 125 and 150 mg kg d respectively. One death occurred at 125 mg kg d in the rat study and 2 deaths (1 each at 50 and 150 mg kg d) occurred in the rabbit study. NOELs of 15 and 15 mg kg d were established for maternal toxicity in the rat and rabbit respectively. These were based tremors at 55 mg kg d in the rat and mortality (following severe tremors) at 50 mg kg d in the rabbit. In a dietary multi-generation reproductive toxicity study in the rat there was no evidence of teratogenicity, foetotoxicity or maternal reproductive toxicity in rats administered transfluthrin at doses up to 191 mg kg d. NOELS of 62-191 and 9-38 mg kg d were established for maternal reproductive and parental toxicity respectively. The NOEl for parental toxicity was based on the following observations at 1000 ppm: - decreased body weight and body weight gain, increased absolute and relative liver and kidney weights, increased relative kidney weight, decreased hepatic triglyceride content, increased incidence of tubular pigmentation, tubular casts and pelvic calcinosis.
Ref: Evaluation on: Transfluthrin Use as a Public Hygiene Insecticide. September 1997. Prepared by: the UK Health and Safety Executive, Biocides & Pesticides Assessment Unit, Magdalen House, Stanley Precinct, Bootle, Merseyside L20 3QZ. Available from: Department for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs, Pesticides Safety Directorate, Mallard House, Kings Pool, 3 Peasholme Green, York YO1 7PX. UK. Also at
http://www.pesticides.gov.uk/citizen/evaluations/165_confirm-box.htm
Note: This was transcribed from the copy available on the web. While one can easily read this report on the web, the report is inaccessible, or locked, to any attempt to copy it. Any errors are mine. EC.

Trifloxystrobin - Fungicide - CAS No. 141517-21-7

-- Subchronic toxicity. In subchronic studies, several mortality related changes were reported for the top dose in dogs (500 mg/kg) and rats (800 mg/kg). At these dose levels, excessive toxicity has resulted in body weight loss and mortality with the associated and non-specific changes in several organs (such as atrophy in the thymus, pancreas, bone marrow, lymph node, and spleen) which are not considered specific target organs for the test compound. In the dog, specific effects were limited to hepatocellular hypertrophy at 150 mg/kg and hyperplasia of the epithelium of the gall bladder at 500 mg/kg. Target organ effects in the rat were noted as hepatocellular hypertrophy (200 mg/kg) and the related liver weight increase (50 mg/kg). In the mouse, target organ effects included single cell necrosis (300 mg/kg) and hypertrophy (1,050 mg/ kg) in the liver and extramedullary hematopoiesis (300 mg/ kg) and hemosiderosis in the spleen (1,050 mg/kg). In general, definitive target organ toxicity, mostly in the liver, was seen at high feeding levels of over 100 mg/kg for an extended treatment period. At the lowest observed adverse effect level (LOAEL), no serious toxicity was observed other than mostly non-specific effects including a reduction in body weight and food consumption or liver hypertrophy.
-- Chronic toxicity. The liver appears to be the major primary target organ based on the chronic studies conducted in mice, rats, and dogs. It was identified as a target organ in both the mouse and the dog studies with trifloxystrobin. However, no liver effect was seen in the chronic rat study which produced the lowest NOAEL of 2.5 mg/kg based on reduced body weight gain and food consumption seen at higher dose levels.
Ref: Federal Register. November 14, 2001. [PF-1048; FRL-6806-6]

http://www.fluoridealert.org/pesticides/Trifloxystrobin.FR.Nov14.01.htm

Trifloxysulfuron-sodium - Herbicide - CAS No. 199119-58-9

90-Day oral toxicity in nonrodents (dogs). NOAEL: 19.8/19.6 mg/kg/day (M/F) LOAEL: 164.2/167.3 mg/kg/day (M/F): M = decreased body weight gain (20%), slight hematological effects, clinical chemistry changes suggesting hepatotoxicity, decreased thymus weight, thymic atrophy, increased glycogen in liver, hemorrhage in mesenteric lymph nodes; F = decreased body weight gain (44%), anemia with extramedullary hematopoiesis in liver/ spleen and myeloidhyperplasia in bone marrow, clinical chemistry changes suggesting hepatotoxicity, decrease thymus weight, thymic atrophy and hyaline tubular change in kidney.
Ref: Federal Register: September 17, 2003 (Volume 68, Number 180)] Rules and Regulations. Trifloxysulfuron; Pesticide Tolerance. Final Rule.
http://www.fluorideaction.org/pesticides/trifloxysulfuron.fr.sept.03.htm

-- In the rat teratology study, 300 and 1,000 mg/kg/day caused maternal toxicity consisting of reduced body weight and food consumption. Developmental toxicity was secondary to maternal toxicity and consisted of slightly reduced fetal body weights and an increase in minor skeletal anomalies and variations. The NOAELs for maternal and developmental toxicity were both 30 mg/kg/day...
-- Chronic toxicity. Trifloxysulfuron-sodium technical was not oncogenic in rats or mice. In a 12-month feeding study in dogs fed diets containing trifloxysulfuron-sodium that resulted in average (sexes combined) daily test substance intakes of 0, 1.67, 6.71, 15.0, 48.2 or 122 mg/kg/day, all animals survived... The body weight gain was decreased by 16% in males at 122 mg/kg/ day. The 33% decrease at 48.2 mg/kg/day was mainly due to one male that gained significantly less weight than the other animals of this group. There was a tendency for a decrease in the erythrocyte count, hemoglobin concentration and hematocrit for both sexes at 122 mg/kg/day at the end of treatment, and for males throughout the treatment period. In female dogs treated with 48.2 and 122 mg/kg/day, the mean absolute and relative liver weights were increased, and a tendency for an increase in relative liver weight was noted for males at the same dose levels. The maximum tolerance dose (MTD) was achieved at 122 mg/kg/day based on the decrease in the body weight gain in males at 48.2 and 122 mg/kg/day. Administration of trifloxysulfuron-sodium to dogs for 12 months caused a tendency for decrease in red blood cell parameters in both sexes at 122 mg/kg/day. There was neither histopathological nor functional evidence for compound related neurotoxicity. Based on the effects at 48.2 and 122 mg/kg/day, the NOAEL was established at 15.0 mg/kg/day for males and 14.9 mg/kg/day for females.
-- In a 90-day subchronic neurotoxicity study in rats, trifloxysulfuron-sodium was not neurotoxic when administered in the diet for 13 weeks at concentrations resulting in average daily test substance intakes of 0, 112, 472, or 967 mg/kg/day for males or 0, 134, 553 or 1,128 mg/kg/day for females... Based on body weight effects, the NOAEL was established at 112 mg/kg/day for male rats and 553 mg/kg/day for female rats.
Ref: Federal Register: March 21, 2003. Trifloxysulfuron-sodium; Notice of Filing a Pesticide Petition to Establish a Tolerance for a Certain Pesticide Chemical in or on Food.

http://www.fluoridealert.org/pesticides/Trifloxysulfuron-s.Mar21.03.htm

Triflumizole - Fungicide - CAS No. 68694-11-1

-- Reproduction and fertility effects (rat): ... Parental/Systemic: LOAEL = 21 mg/kg/ day based on decreased body weight and overall body weight gain, increased relative liver weights, and increased mortality in females.
Ref: Federal Register: June 12, 2002. Triflumizole; Pesticide Tolerance. Final Rule.
http://www.fluoridealert.org/pesticides/Triflumizole.FR.June12.2002.htm

Trifluralin - Herbicide - CAS No. 1582-09-8

• Long term toxicity (Annex IIA, point 5.5). Target/critical effect. Body weight reduction, anemia, liver & kidney effects (mouse, rat). (page 46).
Reproductive toxicity (Annex IIA, point 5.6). Reproduction target / critical effect. Decreased maternal growth, anaemia, uterine atrophy and decreased offspring growth and survival from 40,750,8 mg/kg bw/day (rat). (page 46)
Ref: March 14, 2005. European Food Safety Authority: Conclusion regarding the peer review of the pesticide risk assessment of the active substance trifluralin. EFSA Scientific Report (2005) 28, 1-77.
http://www.fluoridealert.org/pesticides/trifluralin.eu.long.2005.pdf

-- 146 117267, "A Chronic Toxicity Study of Trifluralin (Compound 036352) Administered Orally to Beagle Dogs for 1 Year", (E.R. Adams, N.R. Bernhard & W.H. Jordan, Lilly Research Laboratories, Lab. Project ID D07190, 8/6/92). Trifluralin (purity 99.86%) was administered (once/day) to Beagle dogs (4/sex/dose) in gelatin capsules at 0 (empty gelatin capsule), 0.75, 2.4 or 40 mg/kg for one year. NOEL = 2.4 mg/kg (Body weights were decreased in females at 40 mg/kg. Several effects were observed in hematology and clinical biochemistry parameters in both sexes at 40 mg/kg. Liver weights were increased in both sexes at 40 mg/kg and heart and adrenal weights were decreased in females at 40 mg/kg. Kidney and liver histopathology (pigment deposition) was observed in both sexes at 40 mg/kg.) No adverse effect. ACCEPTABLE. (Kishiyama & Silva, 11/21/95).
-- ** 089 036915 "A Teratology Study (I) of Trifluralin (EL-152, Compound 36352) Administered Orally to Dutch Belted Rabbits." (Lilly Research Labs., 10/31/84, Study B02283 and Study BO1784) Trifluralin (96.7% pure), lot 00554AP2; 0, 100, 225, 500, or 800; oral gavage, days 6 - 18; 20/group; maternal NOEL = 225 mg/kg (maternal death and abortions), developmental toxicity NOEL = 225 mg/kg (decreased fetal weight); Complete and ACCEPTABLE WITH 036916. No adverse developmental toxicity reported. JAP, 11/18/85. EPA one-liner: Maternal NOEL = 225 mg/kg (abortions and anorexia), fetotoxic NOEL = 225 mg/kg (decreased percentage of live fetuses - cardiomegally and wavy ribs at 500 mg/kg/day); Core grade = Supplementary
-- 089 036916 "A Teratology Study (II) of Trifluralin (EL-125, Compound 36352) Administered to Dutch Belted Rabbits." (Lilly Research Lab.s, 12/6/85, Study B01784) Trifluralin (96.7%) given by oral gavage at 0, 100, 225, 500 mg/kg; 25/group; no adverse effects reported; maternal NOEL = 100 mg/kg (death, abortions, decreased body weight gain, food consumption); developmental toxicity NOEL = 225 mg/kg (decreased fetal weight, increased resorptions); complete and ACCEPTABLE WITH 089 036915. JAP, 10/31/85. EPA one-liner: Maternal NOEL = 100 mg/kg/day, fetotoxic NOEL = 225 mg/kg/day; Core grade = Minimum.
-- 089 036914 "A Teratology Study of Trifluralin (EL-152, Compound 36352) Administered Orally to Charles River CD Rats." (Lilly Research Laboratories, 10/22/84, Study RO8484) Trifluralin (96.7% pure), lot 00554AP2; given by oral gavage at 0, 100, 225, 475 or 1000 mg/kg, 25 rats/group; NOEL( maternal toxicity) = 225 mg/kg/day (decreased body weight and food consumption); NOEL (developmental toxicity) = 475 mg/kg/day (decreased fetal weight); ACCEPTABLE. No adverse developmental toxicity reported. JAP, 12/6/85. EPA one-liner: Teratogenic NOEL > 100 mg/kg/day, maternal NOEL = 225 mg/kg/day (decreased body weight and lowered food consumption); fetotoxic NOEL = 475 mg/kg/day (decreased mean fetal weight); Core grade = Minimum.
-- 099, 100, 101 50750, 50751, 50752 "A One-year Two-generation Reproduction Study in CD Rats Maintained on Diets Containing Trifluralin." (Lilly Research Labs, 8/86, R06384 and R13984) Trifluralin technical, 96.45%, lot 554AP2, initial nitrosamine content at 0.33 ppm with 99.43% off contents identified; fed in the diet at 0, 0.02, 0.63 or 0.2% (equivalent to TWAs of 15, 47 and 148 mg/kg/day); 25/sex/group; 2 litters per generation; parental NOEL = 0.063% (decreased body weight gain), reproductive NOEL > 0.2%; no adverse reproductive effect reported; ACCEPTABLE. JG, 5/14/87.

Ref: SUMMARY OF TOXICOLOGY DATA TRIFLURALIN. California EPA, Department of Pesticides, Medical Toxicology Branch. Revised as of 11/29/95.
http://www.cdpr.ca.gov/docs/toxsums/pdfs/597.pdf

Triflusulfuron-methyl - Herbicide - CAS No. 126535-15-7

-- TERATOLOGY, RAT. 51974-030; 119842; "Teratogenic Study of DPX-66037-24 in Rats" (Author: C.A. Mebus; E.I. du Pont de Nemours & Company, Inc., Newark, DE, Project No. HLR 525-91, 11/1/91); DPX-66037-24 (95.6% Triflusulfuron-methyl); 0, 30, 120, 350, 1000 mg/kg/day oral gavage; 25 Crl: CD BR female rats/dose; observations- maternal effects; five animals died due to dosing injuries; significant decreases in maternal weight changes and feed consumption were observed; fetal effects; significantly increased average number of malformed fetuses were observed, the majority of fetal malformations occurred in one fetus, when individual end points of developmental evaluation criteria were grouped a significant increase was noted in the 350 and 1000 mg/kg dose groups primarily due to retarded renal development and partial ossification of skulls, sternebra or vertebra; no adverse effect; Maternal NOEL = 120 mg/kg (based on decreased maternal weight gain and feed consumption), Developmental NOEL = 120number of malformed fetuses, retarded fetal development)
-- TERATOLOGY, RABBIT. 51974-031; 119843; "Teratogenic Study of DPX-66037-24 in Rabbits" (Author: S.M. Murray; E.I. du Pont de Nemours & Company, Inc., Newark, DE, Project No. HLR 575-91, 10/28/91); DPX-66037-24 (95.6% Triflusulfuron-methyl); 0, 15, 90, 270, 800 mg/kg/day oral gavage; 20 Hra:(NZW)SPF female rabbits/dose; observations- maternally toxic at doses of 90 mg/kg and greater, significant increased dose-related mortalities and spontaneous abortions occurred at levels of 270 and 800 mg/kg, during the dosing period the highest two dose groups showed clinical signs of reduced fecal output, reduced fecal size or diarrhea; significant decreases in maternal weight changes and feed consumption were also observed; histopathological changes were noted primarily in the 800 mg/kg group and included gastric mucosal ulcerations and digestive tract gaseous distension; death losses at 800 mg/kg were extreme and data from remaining dams were markedly different therefore these data were excluded from statistical analysis; no physiological or developmental fetal effects were observed at any dose level; no adverse effect; Maternal NOEL = 15 mg/kg (based on animal death, abortions, decreased maternal weight gain and food consumption), = 800 mg/kg (based on no adverse affects).
-- 51974-058; 127247; "Combined Chronic Toxicity/Oncogenicity Study with DPX-66037-24 Two-Year Feeding Study in Rats" (Author: L.B. Biegel; E.I. du Pont de Nemours & Company, Inc., Newark, DE; Project No. HLR 3-93; 5/6/93); DPX-66037-24 (95.6% triflusulfuron-methyl); 0, 10, 100, 750, 1,500 ppm (averaged intake (M) 0, 0.406, 4.49, 30.6, 64.5 and (F) 0, 0.546, 5.47, 41.5, 87.7 mg/kg/day, respectively)in diets; 62 rats/sex/dose; observations- statistically significant decreased body weights and body weight gains of rats in the 1,500 ppm group; in females fed 750 and 1500 ppm a decreased incidence of mammary masses was noted when compared to controls, in the highest dosed females statistically significant increases of sciatic nerve myelin/axon degeneration occurred, the 1500 ppm males had no increased incidence of this lesion but showed increased lesion severity; males in 750 and 1500 ppm groups had decreased erythrocyte counts and mean serum triglyceride concentrations; high dosed males showed decreased serum calcium concentrations, an increase in the absolute and relative testes weight and statistically significant increases of both Leydig cell hyperplasia and adenomas; NOEL(M)= 100 ppm (based on decreased erythrocyte counts, decreased body weights, decreased body weight gain, increased severity of sciatic nerve lesions, Leydig cell hyperplasia and Leydig cell adenomas); NOEL(F)= 750 ppm (based on decreased body weight and increased incidence of sciatic nerve degeneration); Possible Adverse Effect: Leydig cell hyperplasia and adenomas; Acceptable. (Miller, 12/13/93)
-- REPRODUCTION, RAT ** 51974-057; 126843; "Reproductive and Fertility Effects with DPX-66037-24 Multigeneration Reproduction Study in Rats" (Author: M. E. Hurtt; E.I. du Pont de Nemours & Company, Inc., Newark, DE, Project No. HLR 231-92, 4/20/93); DPX-66037-24 (95.6% Triflusulfuron-methyl); 0, 10, 100, 750, 1,500 ppm dietary; 30 Crl: CD BR rats/dose both P1 and F1; observations- no dose related mortalities were observed, statistically significant lower body weights and body weight gains were observed in P1 (two highest doses) and F1 (1500 ppm) males, body weight effects were accompanied by statistically significant decreases in food consumption (1500 ppm group), in female P1 rats statistically significant lower mean body weight gains were noted (750, 1500 ppm groups) during premating, statistically significant lower mean body weights during gestation and lactation (two highest groups) were also observed, statistically significant decreases in overall food consumption was present in F1 female rats during premating (750, 1500 ppm groups), no additional statistically significant differences were found in other adult parameters; compound related decreases in mean F1 and F2 pup weights (highest two dose groups) were observed but were not statistically significant, there were no significant differences in any other clinical observations in the F1 and F2 pups; generally gross necropsy and histomorphologic findings of adults and offspring were few and were not considered treatment related; Adult and Developmental NOEL = 100 ppm of a.i. (based on decreased body weight, body weight gain, food efficiency and decreased pup weights); Acceptable (Miller, 11/18/93).
-- Subchronic Neurotoxicity, Rat **51974-099; 147828; "Subchronic Neurotoxicity Study of DPX-66037-24 (Triflusulfuron methyl) Administered Orally via the Diet to Crl:CDBR VAF/Plus Rats" J.A. Foss; E.I. du Pont de Nemours & Company, Newark, DE; Project No. DuPont HLO 127-93; 9/29/94; DPX-66037-24 (95.6%, Triflusulfuron-methyl); male doses (consumed mean doses [mg/kg/day] range) 0, 100 (4.4-9.7), 750 (72.1-32.8), 1500 (143.1-66.5), 3000 (272.1-133.8) ppm in diets, female doses (consumed mean doses [mg/kg/day] range) 0, 100 (5.5-9.7), 750 (67.7-40.0), 1500 (136.2-79.0), 3000 (258.3-163.4) ppm in diets ; 11 rats/sex/dose; observations-No specific evidence of behavioral or histological neurotoxicity at any level. The 750 ppm and higher dietary concentrations significantly reduced body weight gains and feed consumption values and the two highest concentrations significantly reduced the average body weights in females. The 3000 ppm concentration significantly reduced body weight gains and showed a trend to reduce average body weights and feed consumption values in male rats. NOEL(F)= 100 ppm (based on decreased body weight gain); NOEL(M)= 1500 ppm (based on decreased body weight gain); No adverse effects.
-- Rabbit 21-Day Repeated Dosing Dermal Toxicity Study 51974-093; 147897; Subacute Dermal Toxicity; 822; Rabbit; "Repeated Dose Dermal Toxicity: 21-Day Study with DPX-66037-24 (Triflusulfuron Methyl) in Rabbits"; S.A. MacKenzie; E.I. du Pont de Nemours and Co., Haskell Lab. for Tox. and Ind. Med., Newark, DE; Laboratory Report No. HRL 552-93; 9/27/93 ; Triflusulfuron Methyl (DPX-66037-24, 95.6% purity); 0, 50, 300, 1000 mg/kg applied dermally 6 hrs/day for 21 days ; 822; 5 New Zealand White rabbits/sex/dose; observations- There were no test article related mortalities or clinical signs of systemic toxicity. Slight or mild erythema was observed in animals of all groups (including controls). Mild skin trauma was noted in a few animals but was not considered compound-related. Microscopic skin lesions observed in both treated and control groups included, minimal to mild inflamation and acanthosis. Lesions were attributed to testing procedure. Statistically significant differences in mean body weight gain were observed over a few intervals in female rabbits but did not exibit a dose-response and were not considered compound related. No other compound related changes were noted any other parameter including body weight or body weight gain, food consumption, hematology or clinical chemistry analysis. Systemic and Dermal NOEL(M/F)= NOAEL(M/F)=1000 mg/kg b.w. (based on no effects at HDT).
-- Dog Subchronic Dietary Toxicity Study 51974-029; 119838; "A Subchronic (3-month) Toxicity Study of DPX-66037-24 in the Dog Via Dietary Administration" (Author: J.E. Atkinson; Bio/dynamics, Inc., East Millstone, NJ, Project No. 91-3653, 12/20/91); DPX-66037-24(95.6% triflusulfuron-methyl); 0, 100, 4,000 and 8,000 ppm (averaged intake (M) 3.9, 146.1, 267.6 and (F) 3.7, 159.9 and 250.7 mg/kg/day) in diets; 4 Beagle dogs/sex/dose; observations- two high dose females were sacrificed in extremis showing marked body weight loss with low food consumption and frank anemia, other high dose animals exhibited little to no weight gain with food consumption slightly decreased in the early weeks of the study; decreased erythrocyte count and associated hematocrit and hemoglobin levels were noted at 1 1/2 and 3 months with a compensatory elevated reticulocyte count; hepatotoxcity was demonstrated by elevated levels of serum aspartate aminotransferase, serum alanine aminotransferase, alkaline phosphatase and elevated liver weights and microscopic evidence of bile stasis in the 4,000 and 8,000 ppm groups; in mid and high dose males testicular atrophy and decreased testicular weights were characterized by aspermatogenesis, decreased seminiferous tubule thickness and germinal epithelial cytoplasmic vacuolation; sternal and femoral bone marrow hypercellularity was seen in high dose animals; NOEL(M/F)= 100 ppm (based on microscopic findings in the liver and testes); Possible Adverse Effect: testicular atrophy, aspermatogenesis.
Reference: Nov 18, 2005 - Summary of Toxicology Data. California Environmntal Protection Agency. Department of Pesticide Regulation. Medical Toxicology Branch
.
http://www.fluoridealert.org/pesticides/triflusulfuron-m.ca.epa.2005.pdf

Triphenyltin fluoride - Antifoulant, Algaecide, Herbicide - CAS No. 379-52-2

An acute dust inhalation toxicity study using albino rats as experimental animals was performed for the compound triphenyltin-fluoride. The acute dust inhalation median lethal concentration of the test compound is 0.29 milligrams per liter of air based on a four hour exposure period. Untoward behavioral reactions exhibited by the animals included gasping, bloody nasal discharge, bloody ocular discharge, and weakness. Body weight gains of the survivors of the 14 day observation period were less than normal. Gross pathologic observation revealed mild to severe focal discoloration of the lungs in all test animals.
Ref: Elliott CB (1972). Acute Dust Inhalation Toxicity Study with Triphenyltin Fluoride in Albino Rats. M and T Chemicals, Inc. (Unpublished report submitted to NIOSH), Rahway, N. J., IBT No. N1632, 14 pages, 1 reference.

 
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