Fluoride Action Network

Distribution of fluoride contamination in drinking water resources and health risk assessment using geographic information system, northwest Iran.

Source: Regulatory Toxicology and Pharmacology 107:104408. | June 18th, 2019 | By Yousefi M, Ghalehaskar S, Asghari FB, et al.
Location: Iran


  • Fluorosis is a considerable health problem worldwide.
  • High concentrations fluoride above 3 mg l?1 may cause dental and skeletal fluorosis.
  • HQ indicated health risk assessment in relation to F- concentration for children and adults were significant.
  • The fluoride contamination must be reduced in this study area to decrease endemic fluorosis.


This paper considers exposure to the concentration of fluoride in drinking water resources of Showt city in West Azerbaijan Province in, Iran, and its related potential health risk assessment issues to the resident populations. For this purpose, 88 drinking water samples were analyzed in 2016 by using the spectrophotometric method. Non-carcinogenic health risks due to F exposure through consumption of drinking water were assessed using the US EPA method. In addition, the associated zoning maps of the obtained results were presented using a geographic information system (GIS). The results indicated that fluoride concentration in drinking water ranged from 0.0 to 5.5 mg L-1 of the study area. Based on this research, 36.36% of the samples had a fluoride level higher than the permissible level, 13.63% had less than the permissible limit, and 50% of the samples had a level within the optimum limit of 0.5-1.5 mg L-1. The Hazard Quotient index (HQ) for children, teenager and adults had health hazards (HQ> 1) in 54.55%, 31.82%, and 22.73% of samples, respectively. Groundwater resources having a risk of more than one were located in the villages of Khilajajam, Kolos, and Shorboulagh. So, in these study areas, there are potential risks of dental and skeletal fluorosis.

Authors: Yousefi M, Ghalehaskar S, Asghari FB, Ghaderpoury A, Dehghani MH, Ghaderpoori M, Mohammadi AA.

*Original abstract online at https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0273230019301722?via%3Dihub