This systematic study was carried out with objective to delineate the various sources responsible for NO?3 contamination and F– enrichment by utilizing statistical and graphical methods. Since Central Ground Water Board, India, indicated susceptibility of NO3– contamination and F? enrichment, in most of the groundwater, NO3– and F– concentration primarily observed >45 and >1.5 mg/L, respectively, i.e., higher than the permissible limit for drinking water. Water Quality Index (WQI) indicates ˜22.81% groundwater are good-water, ˜71.14% groundwater poor-water, ?5.37% very poor-water and 0.67% unsuitable for drinking purpose. Piper diagram indicates ˜59.73% groundwater hydrogeochemical facies are Ca–Mg–HCO3 water-types, ˜28.19% Ca–Mg–SO4–Cl water-types, ˜8.72% Na–K–SO4–Cl water-types and 3.36% Na–K–HCO3 water-types. This classification indicates dissolution and mixing are mainly controlling groundwater chemistry. Salinity diagram indicate ˜44.30% groundwater under in low sodium and medium salinity hazard, ˜49.66% groundwater fall under low sodium and high salinity hazard, ˜3.36% groundwater fall under very-high salinity hazard. Sodium adsorption ratio indicates ˜97% groundwater are in excellent condition for irrigation. The spatial distribution of NO3– indicates significant contribution of fertilizer from agriculture lands. Fluoride enrichment occurs in groundwater through the dissolution of fluoride-rich minerals. By reducing the consumption of fertilizer and stress over groundwater, the water quality can be improved.
*Original abstract online at https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2Fs12040-018-1006-4