Fluoride Action Network

Human health risk assessment of fluoride-rich groundwater using fuzzy-analytical process over the conventional technique

Source: Groundwater for Sustainable Development | October 14th, 2019 | Authors: Mohanta VL, Singh S, Mishra BK.
Location: India


  • Exposure to Fluoride in groundwater was assessed.
  • Non-cancer risk was investigated using USEPA method.
  • A fuzzy based index was developed and was compared with conventional method to assess the non-cancer risk.
  • Risk of the detected Fluoride was exceeding the limits recommended by USEPA.


The aim of the present study was to establish the fluoride concentration in groundwater of Gharwar village, Dhanbad, India and associated health risk using fuzzy-analytical hierarchy process over the conventional technique. A total of 20 groundwater samples were analyzed and the observed fluoride concentration varied from 0.3 to 12.5?mg/L. Piper diagram demonstrated the strong positive correlation of high Sodium-bicarbonate type water with the elevated Fluoride content in groundwater. For better understanding of effect of Fluoride on human health, fuzzy hazard index (FHI) was assessed through fuzzy logic method over the traditional hazard index (HI) method and the results exhibited that HI value due to fluoride exposure varied from 0.31 to 12.82 and 0.33 to 13.88 for adults and children respectively, which was up to 13.88 times higher than the critical limit. While the FHI values varied from 0.42 to 11.9 and 0.43 to 12.2 for adults and children, respectively. Further results suggested that the fuzzy logic-based index method produces more concise, stringent and reliable results over the traditional HI method and therefore can be used as a comprehensive tool for human health risk assessment, mainly while assessing water for drinking purpose.

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*Original abstract online at https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S2352801X19301742