Fluoride Action Network


The aim of this study was to determine long-term effects of oral fluoride (F) ingestion on serum Co, Mo, Cr, Mn, and Li levels in mice. Fifty adult male Swiss mice were divided into five equal groups and given tap water containing 0, 10, 20, 30, and 40 mg F/L. After four months, serum samples were collected via cardiac puncture under ether anesthesia. Mineral analyses were determined by atomic absorption spectrometry with a graphite furnace system. Serum Co levels increased (p<0.05), whereas Mo, Cr, and Mn levels decreased (p<0.05), and Li levels remained unchanged. F concentration in the water was positively correlated with serum Co (r = 0.488, p < 0.001) and negatively with serum Mo, Cr, and Mn, but not with Li (r = 0.057, p = 0.695).


Overall, serum levels of Co, Mo, Cr, and Mn in mice were affected by F supplementation, but the serum level of Li was not. Especially noteworthy was the decrease in Mo, Cr, and Mn, which might affect various crucial metabolic pathways in mammals, including humans.