Fluoride Action Network


The role of pro-inflammatory cytokines in the toxicity of fluoride to tumor cells was investigated by culturing Hepa1-6 cells in medium containing gradient concentrations of fluoride (0, 0.5, 1, 1.5, 2, 3, 4, and 5 mmol/L). The viability of Hepa1-6 cells was detected via MTT assay. Interleukin (IL)-2, IL-6, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-?, and IL-1? levels in the supernatant were determined via an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, and the protein expression levels of these enzymes in Hepa1-6 cells were evaluated by immunofluorescence staining. Results showed that the viability of Hepa1-6 cells remarkably decreases after fluoride exposure, especially at concentration of 3, 4, and 5 mmol/L fluoride. Levels of IL-2, TNF-?, and IL-1? in the supernatant markedly decreased when cells were exposed to fluoride at concentrations of 1 mmol/L or higher. However, levels of TNF-? and IL-1? substantially increased and IL-2 showed no remarkable change when the fluoride concentration was 0.5 mmol/L. The content of IL-6 remarkably increased with increasing fluoride concentrations up to 2 mmol/L, and then markedly decreased at 3, 4, and 5 mmol/L fluoride; the decreasing trend of IL-6 content under high fluoride exposure is consistent with the decrease in Hepa1-6 cell viability observed at the same concentration. The protein expression levels of IL-2, IL-6, TNF-?, and IL-1? were in accordance with their contents in the supernatant. In summary, our study demonstrated that fluoride inhibits Hepa1-6 cell growth and results in disorders in the expression and secretion pro-inflammatory cytokines.


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This work is sponsored by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (grant no. 31201963).