- In this review, occurrence of fluoride ion has been highlighted with its worldwide and national scenario.
- The effect of fluoride ions in the environment, as well as the human body, was elaborated.
- Fluoride detection technologies with special reference to Sensor based technologies
- Removal techniques were discussed including process mechanism and economics.
- Future recommendations were put forward in the field of fluoride removal.
Fluoride contamination has become a considerable threat to our society worldwide. Fluoride in drinking water is primarily due to rich fluoride soil, volcanic activity, forage, grasses and grains, and anthropogenic reasons. World Health Organization has regulated the upper limit for fluoride in drinking water to be 1.5 mg/L while different countries have set their standards according to their circumstances. Excess amounts of fluoride ions in drinking water can cause dental fluorosis, skeletal fluorosis, arthritis, bone damage, osteoporosis, muscular damage, fatigue, joint-related problems, and chronicle issues. In extreme conditions, it could adversely damage the heart, arteries, kidney, liver, endocrine glands, neuron system, and several other delicate parts of a living organism, briefed in the present article. Moreover, a comprehensive scenario for the situations in countries like, China, Canada, Mexico, United States, Yemen, Pakistan, Saudi Arabia, South Korea, Sri Lanka, Indonesia, Iran, Turkey, Australia, and India affected with high fluoride levels in ground water has been described. To analyze the presence of fluoride molecule, out of different detections methods, ion selective and colorimetric method has been adopted for real situation in the field of water application. Also, different methods to remove fluoride from water like reverse osmosis, nano filtration, adsorption, ion-exchange, and precipitation/coagulation with their removal mechanism were highlighted in the review. Moreover, the applicability of the approach with the prospect of country’s economic status has been discussed, due to high cost and maintenance the membrane technology is not popular in developing countries like India, Senegal, Tanzania, and Kenya which employ adsorption and coagulation-precipitation for fluoride removal. It is noticeable from literature study that different approaches show unique potential for defluoridation. Some key parameters and mechanistic adaptations which could pave the defluoridation methods to newer horizons have been put forward.
*Original study online at https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/abs/pii/S0048969721056795
Fluoride in Drinking Water: A Scientific Review of EPA’s Standards.
Excerpts: Summary Under the Safe Drinking Water Act, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is required to establish exposure standards for contaminants in public drinking-water systems that might cause any adverse effects on human health. These standards include the maximum contaminant level goal (MCLG), the maximum contaminant level (MCL), and the secondary
Fluoride content of groundwater and prevalence of dental, skeletal and neurological stage of fluorosis in Tehsil Purwa of Unnao.
Fluoride Sources, Toxicity and Fluorosis Management Techniques - A Brief Review.
Highlights Overexposure to fluoride via drinking water causes several health effects including fluorosis Endemic fluorosis is still persisted in several countries even with advancement in research Most of fluorosis management techniques suggested in the past have come with their own drawbacks Defluoridation techniques based on aluminium materials pose serious
Neuro-medical manifestations of fluorosis in populations living in the Main Ethiopian Rift Valley.
Prolonged exposure to higher concentrations of fluoride (> 1.5 mg/L) is associated with dental and skeletal fluorosis. The effects of fluoride on dental and skeletal system have been studied extensively; however, the neurological consequences of fluoride in population-based studies are limited. The study aims to assess the epidemiology of neurological
The pathogenesis of endemic fluorosis: Research progress in the last 5 years.
Fluorine is one of the trace elements necessary for health. It has many physiological functions, and participates in normal metabolism. However, fluorine has paradoxical effects on the body. Many studies have shown that tissues and organs of humans and animals appear to suffer different degrees of damage after long-term direct
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Fluoride & Osteoarthritis
While the osteoarthritic effects that occurred from fluoride exposure were once considered to be limited to those with skeletal fluorosis, recent research shows that fluoride can cause osteoarthritis in the absence of traditionally defined fluorosis. Conventional methods used for detecting skeletal fluorosis, therefore, will fail to detect the full range of people suffering from fluoride-induced osteoarthritis.
Fluoride, Water Hardness, and Endemic Goitre
Variations in goitre prevalence were found to correlate closely with the fluoride content (p=0-74; P<0-01) and with the hardness (p=0.77; P<0-01) of the water in each village. The effects of fluoride and water hardness seem to be independent.
Skeletal Fluorosis: The Misdiagnosis Problem
It is a virtual certainty that there are individuals in the general population unknowingly suffering from some form of skeletal fluorosis as a result of a doctor's failure to consider fluoride as a cause of their symptoms. Proof that this is the case can be found in the following case reports of skeletal fluorosis written by doctors in the U.S. and other western countries. As can be seen, a consistent feature of these reports is that fluorosis patients--even those with crippling skeletal fluorosis--are misdiagnosed for years by multiple teams of doctors who routinely fail to consider fluoride as a possible cause of their disease.
Diagnostic Criteria for Dental Fluorosis: The Thylstrup-Fejerskov (TF) Index
The traditional criteria (the "Dean Index") for diagnosing dental fluorosis was developed in the first half of the 20th century by H. Trendley Dean. While the Dean Index is still widely used in surveys of fluorosis -- including the CDC's national surveys of fluorosis in the United States -- dental
Severe Dental Fluorosis: Perception and Psychological Impact
[caption id="attachment_8879" align="aligncenter" width="550"] Severe fluorosis - Photograph by David Kennedy, DDS[/caption] In its severe forms, dental fluorosis causes highly disfiguring brown and black staining of the teeth, which can cause chronic embarrassment and social anxiety for the impacted child. In 1984, a panel from the National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH) warned
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