Silver diamine fluoride (SDF) was developed in Japan in the 1960s. It is used to control early childhood caries, arrest root caries, prevent fissure caries and secondary caries, desensitise hypersensitive teeth, remineralise hypomineralised teeth, prevent dental erosion, detect carious tissue during excavation and manage infected root canals. SDF is commonly available as a 38% solution containing 255,000 ppm silver and 44,800 ppm fluoride ions. Silver is an antimicrobial and inhibits cariogenic biofilm. Fluoride promotes remineralisation and inhibits the demineralisation of teeth. SDF also inactivates proteolytic peptidases and inhibits dentine collagen degradation. It arrests caries without affecting dental pulp or causing dental fluorosis. Indirect pulp capping with SDF causes no or mild inflammatory pulpal response. However, direct application of SDF to dental pulp causes pulp necrosis. Furthermore, SDF stains carious lesions black. Patients must be well informed before SDF treatment. SDF therapy is simple, painless, non-invasive, inexpensive, and requires a simple armamentarium and minimal support. Both clinicians and patients generally accept it well. In 2021, the World Health Organization included SDF as an essential medicine that is effective and safe for patients. Moreover, it can be used for caries control during the COVID-19 pandemic because it is non-aerosol-generating and has a low risk of cross-infection.
*Original full-text article online at: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1882761622000175?via%253Dihub