Fluoride Action Network



Although there is growing evidence linking the exposure to sulphur dioxide (SO2) and fluoride to human diseases, there is little data on the co-exposure of SO2 and fluoride. Moreover, literature on SO2 and fluoride co-exposure to enamel damage is insufficient. In this work, we concentrate on the concurrent environmental issues of excessive SO2 and fluoride in several coal-consuming regions.


To identify the toxicity of SO2 and fluoride exposure either separately or together, we used both ICR mice and LS8 cells, and factorial design was employed to assess the type of potential combined action.


In this study, co-exposure to SO2 and fluoride exacerbated enamel damage, resulting in more severe enamel defects of incisor and the damage occurred earlier. Cl/HCO3 exchanger expression is increased by SO2 and fluoride in mouse incisor. Consistent with in vivo results, co-exposure of SO2 and fluoride decreased pHi and increased [Cl]i level by increasing the expression of the Cl/HCO3 exchanger in LS8 cells. Furthermore, SO2 and F may increase merlin protein expression, and merlin deficiency causes AE2 expression to decrease in vitro.


Overall, these results indicate that co-exposure to SO2 and fluoride may result in more toxicity both in vitro and in vivo than a single exposure to SO2 and fluoride, suggesting that residents in areas contaminated with SO2 and fluoride may be more likely to suffer enamel damage.

*Original full-text article online at: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/abs/pii/S0946672X2300007X