We investigated six endodontic agents for their ability to induce apoptosis and modify the cytotoxic activity of NaF against human squamous cell carcinoma (HSC-2) and human promyelocytic leukemia (HL-60) cell lines. Four Group I agents (Form Cresol, Cam Phenic, Eucaly Soft, GC Fuji Varnish), but not two Group II agents (Caviton, Canals-N), induced internucleosomal DNA fragmentation and activated caspases 3, 8 and 9 in HL-60 cells. Only Cam Phenic among these agents additively enhanced the cytotoxic activity of NaF in HSC-2 and HL-60 cells. Form Cresol and Cam Phenic reduced the glucose consumption at early stage, possibly due to their toxic effect. Amino acid analysis suggests that the higher cytotoxicity of Form Cresol may be derived, at least in part, from its oxidizing action.