Fluoride levels in seven commercial phosphate fertilizers (four single superphosphate samples, two diammonium phosphate samples, and one ammonium nitrophosphate sample) were analyzed independently at three laboratories employing the techniques of ion chromatography and ion-selective electrode. The results were consistent for aqueous solutions containing 100?mg?L?1 (ppm) of fertilizer. The average values of fluoride from four different studies varied from 0.140?±?0.006–1.33?±?0.158% (w/w) for the seven fertilizer samples. The [P2O5]/[F] ratios (w/w) were computed for all the seven samples and the values were in the range of 13.79–328.57. By comparing these values with the average [P2O5]/[F] ratio in phosphate rock, it was inferred that 3–75% of fluoride originally present in rock remained in the fertilizers. IR spectral data revealed a small peak at 716?cm?1 – indicative of SiF62? – in the sample containing lowest fluoride which may be on account of fluoride stripping of intermediate phosphoric acid with reactive silica in this case. Considering 15 MMT (million metric tons) of annual consumption of phosphate fertilizers in India, the incremental load of fluoride in agricultural fields was estimated to be 127,650?±?14,550 MTy?1 based on the grand average fluoride content of 0.851?±?0.097% (w/w). While a part of this fluoride would likely get discharged into oceans through run-off, the remainder may persist in the soil, some amount may accumulate in vegetation, and a part might find its way into fresh water bodies, thereby aggravating the fluoride problem in the Country. The problem of non-point source pollution can be reduced by eliminating fluoride at source, and utilizing the recovered fluoride as feedstock. This could, in principle, satisfy the entire requirement of the fluorochemicals industry in India. Environmental costs need to be factored in while making an assessment of the viability of fluoride recovery and reuse in this manner compared to production from virgin sources of fluoride.
Fluoride content of alcoholic beverages
BACKGROUND: In view of the conflicting reports of the extent and severity of dental caries in alcohol misusing subjects, a systematic survey of the fluoride content of alcoholic beverages was undertaken. RESULTS: The fluoride content of beverages varied widely particularly if non-UK European products were considered. CONCLUSIONS: Beers brewed in locations with
Florbetaben F 18: Summary of Use during Lactation.
Drug Levels and Effects Information in this record refers to the use of florbetaben F 18 as a diagnostic agent. No information is available on the use of florbetaben F 18 during breastfeeding. The manufacturer recommends withholding breastfeeding for 24 hours after a diagnostic dose Twenty-four hours is about 10 half-lives
Fluoride supplementation (with tablets, drops, lozenges or chewing gum) in pregnant women for preventing dental caries in the primary teeth of their children.
Authors' conclusions: There is no evidence that fluoride supplements taken by women during pregnancy are effective in preventing dental caries in their offspring. Background: Dental caries (tooth decay) is one of the most common chronic childhood diseases. Caries prevalence in most industrialised countries has declined among children over the past few decades. The
Fluoride content in alcoholic drinks
The aim of the study was to determine the role of alcoholic drinks as a potential source of dietary fluoride by means of measuring fluoride levels in selected alcoholic drinks available on the Polish market that are also diverse in terms of the percentage content of ethanol. The study was conducted on 48 types
Fluoride intake by infants
Many infants are fully or partially breast fed during the early months of life; however, the percentage of such infants decreases to about 30 percent by 4 months of age. The majority of US infants are fed formulas for most of the first 10 months of life. Although fluoride (F) intakes by
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