Fluoride Action Network

Government Reports & FAN Submissions

FAN's compilation of government and other reports from the US, EU, WHO, UN, Australia, Canada, Ireland, NZ, and the UK. The majority of FAN's submissions to various government agencies over the years are also included.


2022 – Monitoring and prediction of high fluoride concentrations in groundwater in Pakistan. By Ling Y, Podgorski J, Sadiq M, Rasheed H, Eqani SAMAS, Berg M, Science of The Total Environment, 15:156058, September 1.

Graphical abstract



Fig. 3

Fig. 3. Prediction map at a resolution of approximately 250 m of groundwater fluoride in Pakistan exceeding the WHO guideline of 1.5 mg/L. (AUC score is 0.92). a) Full map with locations of insets. b) Fluoride hotspot of the Sargodha Division in the upper Thal Desert (Bhakkar, Mianwali, Khushab districts). c) Hotspots in the Kasur and densely populated Lahore districts. d) Hotspot of the Thar Desert. The prediction map is also available for viewing at high-resolution on the GIS-based Groundwater Assessment Platform (GAP), www.gapmaps.org.

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