To elucidate the etiology of postoperative spinal cord injury (PSCI) for patients undergoing laminectomy for fluorosis thoracic canal stenosis (FTCS) and summarize the methods of diagnosis and treatment.
From 2006 to 2009, a total of 192 FTCS cases underwent laminectomy. Among them, 16 cases with gradual postoperative neural deterioration were finally diagnosed as PSCI on MRI.One case of intraoperative spinal cord injury was excluded so that only 15 cases were included.
All cases were treated immediately with incision cite puncture and dehydration.Neural function recovered after secondary operation as JOA score improved from 3.00 ± 1.14 to 7.72 ± 1.41 at 12 months follow-up.Statistical analysis demonstrated a linear correlation between the diagnosis time and the improvement of JOA score.
Hematoma and fluid leakage are the common reasons of PSCI for FTCS patients. Meticulous hemostasis, usage of artificial dura matter and partial negative pressure drainage are valuable preventive measures.
An uncommon presentation of fluorosis
A 70 years old farmer from Yemen was referred as a case of osteoarthritis of both knees for preoperative rehabilitation procedures. Six years before he developed progressive skeletal stiffness. By 70 years he became dependent for ambulation and many other self-care activities. He showed quadriparesis resulting from compression of spinal cord
Comparison of rheumatoid (ankylosing) spondylitis and crippling fluorosis
(1) Fluoride concentrations were determined for autopsy samples of rib, sacrum, ilium, vertebra, adhering soft tissue, and rib marrow from a patient suffering from rheumatoid (ankylosing) spondylitis of 10 years’ duration. The fluoride concentrations were not increased above normal levels. In this case, the increased bone density seen in this
Total hip arthroplasty for the treatment of severe hip osteoarthritis due to fluorosis
BACKGROUND: Now, total hip arthroplasty (THA) is one of the effective methods for the treatment of severe hip osteoarthritis due to fluorosis. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the strategies and efficacy of THA for the treatment of severe hip osteoarthritis due to fluorosis. METHODS: A total of five cases with severe hip osteoarthritis due to
Ossification of the posterior longitudinal ligament and fluorosis
There is only one report of ossification of the posterior longitudinal ligament (OPLL) in patients suffering from fluorosis. Deshpande, Dinakarand Reddy (1976) mention an association with fluorosis in 14 of 26 cases. OPLL is not mentioned in two reviews of fluorosis (Jolly 1981; Reddy and Reddy 1987). Patients. In our neurological service,
[Skeletal fluorosis: a case report].
The authors report a case of skeletal fluorosis described in a 60 years old man living in south-west Tunisian. The main clinical sign is a severe functional legs disability. Radiographic examination has shown a diffused osteocondensation, with cervical spine degenerative discopathy, a pelvis bilateral osteoarthritis and an interosseous membrane ossification
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Skeletal Fluorosis: The Misdiagnosis Problem
It is a virtual certainty that there are individuals in the general population unknowingly suffering from some form of skeletal fluorosis as a result of a doctor's failure to consider fluoride as a cause of their symptoms. Proof that this is the case can be found in the following case reports of skeletal fluorosis written by doctors in the U.S. and other western countries. As can be seen, a consistent feature of these reports is that fluorosis patients--even those with crippling skeletal fluorosis--are misdiagnosed for years by multiple teams of doctors who routinely fail to consider fluoride as a possible cause of their disease.
Fluoride & Osteoarthritis
While the osteoarthritic effects that occurred from fluoride exposure were once considered to be limited to those with skeletal fluorosis, recent research shows that fluoride can cause osteoarthritis in the absence of traditionally defined fluorosis. Conventional methods used for detecting skeletal fluorosis, therefore, will fail to detect the full range of people suffering from fluoride-induced osteoarthritis.
Fluoride & Spinal Stenosis
Spinal stenosis is a narrowing of the spaces in the spine that results in pressure being placed on the spinal cord and/or nerve roots. Although stenosis can develop without symptoms, it may produce numbness, tingling, pain and difficulty in walking, as well as a heavy/tired feeling in the legs. It is estimated that 250,000 to 500,000 Americans currently have symptoms of spinal stenosis. Skeletal fluorosis is one cause of stenosis.
As demonstrated by the studies below, skeletal fluorosis may produce adverse symptoms, including arthritic pains, clinical osteoarthritis, gastrointestinal disturbances, and bone fragility, before the classic bone change of fluorosis (i.e., osteosclerosis in the spine and pelvis) is detectable by x-ray. Relying on x-rays, therefore, to diagnosis skeletal fluorosis will invariably fail to protect those individuals who are suffering from the pre-skeletal phase of the disease. Moreover, some individuals with clinical skeletal fluorosis will not develop an increase in bone density, let alone osteosclerosis, of the spine. Thus, relying on unusual increases in spinal bone density will under-detect the rate of skeletal fluoride poisoning in a population.
Exposure Pathways Linked to Skeletal Fluorosis
Excessive fluoride exposure from any source -- and from all sources combined -- can cause skeletal fluorosis. Some exposure pathways , however, have been specifically identified as placing individuals at risk of skeletal fluorosis. These exposure pathways include: Fluoridated Water for Kidney Patients Excessive Tea Consumption High-Fluoride Well Water Industrial Fluoride Exposure Fluorinated Pharmaceuticals (Voriconazole
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