Fluoride Action Network


Excessive fluoride (F) can lead to abnormal bone biology. Numerous studies have focused on the anabolic action of F yet little is known regarding any action on osteoclastogenesis. Little is known regarding the influence of an individual’s genetic background on the responses of bone cells to F. Four-week old C57BL/6J (B6) and C3H/HeJ (C3H) female mice were treated with NaF in the drinking water (0 ppm, 50 ppm and 100 ppm F ion) for 3 weeks. Bone marrow cells were harvested for osteoclastogenesis and hematopoietic colony-forming cell assays. Sera were analyzed for biochemical and bone markers. Femurs, tibiae, and lumbar vertebrae were subjected to microCT analysis. Tibiae and femurs were subjected to histology and biomechanical testing, respectively. The results demonstrated new actions of F on osteoclastogenesis and hematopoietic cell differentiation. Strain-specific responses were observed. The anabolic action of F was favored in B6 mice exhibiting dose-dependent increases in serum ALP activity (p<0.001); in proximal tibia trabecular and vertebral BMD (tibia at 50&100 ppm, p=0.001; vertebrae at 50 and 100 ppm, p=0.023&0.019, respectively); and decrease in intact PTH and sRANKL (p=0.045 and p<0.001, respectively). F treatment in B6 mice also resulted in increased numbers of CFU-GEMM colonies (p=0.025). Strain-specific accumulations in bone [F] were observed. For C3H mice, dose-dependent increases were observed in osteoclast potential (p<0.001), in situ trabecular osteoclast number (p=0.007), hematopoietic colony forming units (CFU-GEMM: p<0.001, CFU-GM: p=0.006, CFU-M: p<0.001), and serum markers for osteoclastogenesis (intact PTH: p=0.004, RANKL: p=0.022, TRAP5b: p<0.001). A concordant decrease in serum OPG (p=0.005) was also observed. Fluoride treatment had no significant effects on bone morphology, BMD, and serum PYD cross-links in C3H suggesting a lack of significant bone resorption. Mechanical properties were also unaltered in C3H. In conclusion, short term F treatment at physiological levels has strain-specific effects in mice. The expected anabolic effects were observed in B6 and novel actions hallmarked by enhanced osteoclastogenesis shifts in hematopoietic cell differentiation in the C3H strain.