A single oral dose of sodium fluoride (NaF) in aqueous solution was given to male Wistar rats. Twenty-four-hour urine samples were collected and examined to evaluate fluoride-induced acute renal damage. The following parameters were measured in 24-h urine: urine volume and urinary excretion of fluoride, N-acetyl-beta-d-glucosaminidase (NAG), alpha-glutathione-S-transferase (alpha-GST), and creatinine (CR). Fluoride exposure produced specific, dose-dependent changes of these parameters. Significant increases of fluoride and fluoride-induced polyuria were observed. NAG as specific marker of proximal convoluted tubule (PCT) function showed a significant increase when the lowest dose of fluoride was administered. At this minimal dose, alpha-GST, a specific marker for the S3 segment, did not show a significant increase but presented the strongest relationship (r = 0. 83) to fluoride dose. No significant changes were measured for CR excretion, which showed a low correlation coefficient (r = 0.36) to administered fluoride. The specific differences in the increase pattern of these parameters show that the PCT is more susceptible to damage by low-dose fluoride than the S3 segment or the glomerulus. We concluded that both NAG and alpha-GST are useful for the diagnosis of fluoride-induced acute nephrotoxicity. Proper evaluation of these urinary indices may be of help to establish the site and extent of kidney injury in acute fluoride toxicity.