Fluoride Action Network



Data is presented showing that fluoride ingested by gravid women enters the maternal circulation, is stored in the placenta and passes through the placental barrier to enter the foetal blood supply.

Evidence is presented that the fluoride in the foetal blood supply affects the developing teeth to make them more resistant .to dental caries. No unusual effects have been observed on the blood pictures of children who ingested fluoride.

One percent of our cases presented evidence of undesirable side effects from fluoride therapy. It is pointed out that if a patient is affected by the fluoride, by this method, the allergen or intoxicant can be removed readily from the diet by discontinuance of the dietary supplement.

Beneficial results to the dentition are demonstrated. Dental fluorosis has been observed and eliminated by adjusting the dosage. Fluorides ingested during the first or second trimester of pregnancy produce benefits as seen in the incidence of dental caries, and have been found of no value if begun in the third trimester.

The mode of action of fluoride is unknown.

A delay in the eruption of ·the teeth occurs.

It is pointed out that much more study on the Biological effects of ingested Fluoride is necessary.


In previous publications 1, 2 evidence was presented showing that the ingestion of fluorides
during the forma:tive stages of amelogenesis did, in fact, have an effect on the developing dentition, that the element was retained in blood and certain soft tissues and that a small percentage of patients manifested adverse systemic reactions. The data presented in this report confirm and extend the findings in a larger number of subjects.


Three different sources of fluoride were used in this study. The tablets containing 1.0 mgm fluorine ion from CaF2; 1.2 mgm fluorine ion, from NaF and 0.825 mgm fluorine ion from Na2PO3F, each. These values were chosen so that each tablet would contain approximately the same amount of the ion and to supply an optimum amount of daily dietary supplement.

The measured doses of these salts were ingested by gravid women and by children through their eighth year of life, or during the periods of dental enamel formation. These tablets could be dissolved in the mouth, dissolved in any liquid or could be chewed, depending on the individual’s preference or ability. One tablet daily was prescribed.

There was no selection of the patients included in this study, they were all patients utilizing the facilities of the hospital, coming from all walks of life and all ethnic groups. The controls were patients chosen at random from the above group who received no known supplemental fluoride. The water in the study area is fluoride free…

… The average placental tissue fluoride concentration in the tablet study group was: NaF
group, 149.2 mcg/100 gms; CaF2 group, 109.1 mcg/100 gms and Na2P0 3F group, 107.8
mcg/100 gms. In the controls, 105.8 mcg/100 gms.

In the tablet study group, the average cord blood concentration and the average placental
tissue concentration was higher than in ,the controls. Examination of tables II and III reveals the wide spread in the data. There is a marked difference in the F concentration between study and control cases in the cord blood (table II), the difference in the placental tissue is not as marked except in the NaF cases (table III).

Of interest is the finding that in no case was a fluoride concentration in placental tissue below 25 mcg/100 gms in either the CaF2 or NaF cases.

The recovery of high F- concentrations in control placenta tissue analysis puzzled us for a
period of time. As a result, microdeterminations of fluoride content of pharmaceuticals
prescribed as prenatal medication were done. Thirty nine prescription items were obtained
and analysed. It was found that an occult supply of fluoride was being used, there being no
mention made of fluoride content as a constituent on the labels of many of the products7.

Six samples of placental tissue were inadvertently left out of the refrigerator in Morristown,
an artificially fluoridated city ( tables II and III). Upon analysis, it was found that the fluoride, had, to a marked degree left the tissue. It was found in the liquid resulting from
the autolysis. This, although on a small number of cases, 6 in number, causes us to surmise that fluoride may be a function of intracellular activity.

The data presented demonstrates that fluoride is present in the placenta, reaching that tissue via the metabolic process, it is stored there with the higher concentrations in the periphery and that it passes the placental barrier to enter the foetal blood supply. From the foetal blood supply it enters into the enamel complex of the forming teeth, in a manner as yet not known…

… One percent of our cases reacted adversely to the fluoride. By the use of placebos, it was definitely established that the fluoride and not the binder was the causative agent. These reactions, occurring in gravid women and in children of all ages in the study group affected the dermatologic, gastrointestinal and neurological systems. Eczema, atopic dermatitis, urticaria, epigastric distress, emesis, and headache have all occurred with the use of fluoride and disappeared upon the use of placebo tablets, only to recur when the fluoride tablet was, unknowingly to the patient, given again. When adverse reactions occur, the therapy can be readily discontinued and the patient or parent advised of the fact that sensitivity exists and the element is to be avoided as much as possible…


1. Feltman, R., and Kosel, G., Prenatal ingestion of fluorides and their transfer to the foetus. Science, 122:560-561 (1955).

2. Feltman, R., Prenatal and postnatal)ngestion of fiuoride salts: A progress report. Dental Digest, 62 :353-357 (1956).

3. Villard, H. H., and Winter, 0 B., Volumetric method for determining fluorine; Ind. Eng. Chem. Anal Edit., 5 :7-10 (1933).

4. Williams, H. A.; Titration of microgram quantities of fluoride; Analyst, 71 :175 (1946).

5. Smith, F. A.; and Gardner, D. Ei ; Investigations on metabolism of fluoride; Determination of fluoride in blood, Jnl. Dent. Res., 30:182-188 (1951).

6. Arnold, F. A.; McClure, F. J., and White, C. L., Sodium fluoride tablets for children. Dent. Progress 1:12-16 (1960).

7. Feltman, R., and Kosel, G., Fluoride in pharmaceutical preparations; Northwest Medicine, 55 :663-664 (1956).

8. Dean, H. T. and Arnold, F. A.; Endemic dental fluorosis or mottled enamel; Jnl. Amer. Dent, Assoc. 30:1278-1283 (1943).

9. Muhler, J. C.; Personal Communications.

10. Baume, L. J., and Becks, H.: Hormonal control of tooth eruption: II, Effects of hypop,hysectomy on the upper rat incisor following progressively longer intervals.Jnl. Dent. Res., 33 :91-103 (1%4).

11. Baume, L. J., and Becks, II.: Hormonal control of tooth eruption. The effect of thyroidectomy on the upper rat incisor-Response of growth hormone, thyroxin or combination of both, Jnl. Dent. Res. 33 :80-90  (1954).

12. Becks, H.: Personal Communication,

13. De Eds, F.: Personal Communication.